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ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model

browse graphicImage of ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model
In August 2008, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), developed the ETOPO1 Global Relief Model as an improvement to the ETOPO2v2 Global Relief Model. ETOPO1 is available in "Ice Surface" (top of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets) and "Bedrock" (base of the ice sheets) versions. Both versions of ETOPO1 were generated from diverse global and regional digital data sets, which were shifted to common horizontal and vertical datums, and then evaluated and edited as needed. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data used in ETOPO1 were obtained from NGDC, Antarctic Digital Database (ADD), European Ice Sheet Modeling Initiative (EISMINT), Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), Japan Oceanographic Data Center (JODC), Caspian Environment Programme (CEP), Mediterranean Science Commission (CIESM), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO), and Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (LIBSR). ETOPO1 is vertically referenced to sea level, and horizontally referenced to the World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS 84). Cell size for ETOPO1 is 1 arc-minute.

Cite as: Amante, C. and B.W. Eakins, 2009. ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V5C8276M [access date].

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Distribution Formats
  • netCDF  (Version: 4.3.1)
    • File Compression: GZIP
  • GRD98
    • File Compression: GZIP
  • binary
    • File Compression: GZIP
  • xyz
    • File Compression: GZIP
  • georeferenced tiff
    • File Compression: GZIP
  • pdf
  • png
  • jpeg
  • kmz
Distributor Distributor information not available
No point of contact available for this dataset
General Documentation
Associated Resources
  • ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
    Publisher information not available.
  • publication: 2009-01-01
Edition: First
Dataset Progress Status Complete
Data Update Frequency: As needed
Purpose: Developed to support global research, exploration, and education
Time Period: 1940-01-01  to  2008-01-01
Spatial Reference System:
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates:
N: 90.00
S: -90.00
E: 180.00
W: -180.00
Spatial Coverage Map:
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > Marine Geophysics > Continental Shelves
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > Bathymetry > Seafloor Topography
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > Marine Geophysics > Continental Rises/Slopes
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > Bathymetry > Water Depths
  • EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > Coastal Processes > Coastal Elevation
  • INFOTERRA > Subject disciplines > Geophysics > Geophysics
  • INFOTERRA > Subject disciplines > Geomorphology > Geomorphology
  • Global relief
  • Gridded elevations
  • Integrated bathymetry and topography
  • Geographic Region > Global Land
  • Geographic Region > Global Ocean
Use Constraints No constraint information available
Other Constraints Cite as: Amante, C. and B.W. Eakins, 2009. ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V5C8276M [access date].
  • None
Source Datasets
  • NGDC Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shoreline Database (GSHHS)
  • ADD Antarctica Coastline
  • NGDC Gulf of California Bathymetry
  • JODC Bathymetry
  • CEP Isolines of the Bathymetry of the Caspian Sea
  • CIESM Morpho-bathymetry of the Mediterranean Sea
  • Measured and Estimated Seafloor Topography
  • A high resolution spherical grid topography of the Baltic Sea 2nd edition
  • International Bathymetry Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO)
  • NGDC U.S Coastal Relief Model
  • NGDC U.S Great Lakes Bathymetry
  • Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)
  • Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE)
  • NSIDC Antarctica Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project (RAMP) Topography
  • NSIDC Greenland Bedrock
Lineage Statement Lineage statement not available.
Processing Steps
  • All datasets obtained by NGDC were converted to common horizontal and vertical datums of WGS 84 and sea level, respectively, using FME. They were also converted to common file format, ESRI point shapefiles, for visualization and inspection.
  • Datasets were visually inspected with ArcGIS for identification and editing of data anomalies. Datasets were then compared with overlapping datasets to ensure data consistency.
  • Coastline datasets were adjusted to fit satellite imagery.
  • xyz files of the Measured and Estimated Seafloor Topography data (between -500 m and 0 m) were surfaced using GMT's 'surface' tool onto a 1 arc-minute cell size grid that interpolated to fill empty cells. Points extracted along the GSHHS coastline were also included, at -1 m elevation, to force bathymetric interpolation into the coastal zone. The resulting Arc ASCII grid was clipped to the coastline and the -120 m contour to remove values over land and non-coastal waters.
  • xyz files for each input dataset were gridded using MB-System's 'mbgrid' tool, which utilizes a high-tension spline interpolation method to fill grid cells with no input elevation values. Preferential weighting was given to the NSIDC Antarctica RAMP topography dataset. Least weight was given to the global datasets and the interpolated bathymetric surface. Gridding was performed in 16 regional tiles, each with a 5% data buffer. The grids were imported in ArcGIS and seamlessly merged to create the final global relief model.
  • ETOPO1 was bult as a global, grid-registered, 1 arc-minute grid that spans from pole to pole and from -180 degrees to 180 degrees in longitude. It is 21601 cells by 10801 cells in dimension, with multiple duplicate cells sitting atop the North and South poles and on the -180 degrees and 180 degrees longitude line. A cell-registered version (21600 by 10800 cells) was created from the grid-registered version by resampling, using GMT's 'grdsample' tool. This resampling introduces some flattening of relief, due to averaging of four grid-registered cell vlaues to produce one cell-registered value. Both types are global, though the grid-registered version should be considered the authoritative version. The cell-registered version may be more appropriate for creating maps and images.
Processing Environment Native Dataset Environment: Microsoft Windows 2000 Version 5.2 (Build 3790) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.2

Metadata Last Modified: 2015-09-03

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