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Metadata Identifier: gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.photos:G01197

Aggregation Info | Bands | Citations | Constraints | Coverage Descriptions | Dimensions | Extents | Formats | Geographic Bounding Box
Georectified Information | Georeferenceable Information | Identifiers | Instruments | Mediums | OnlineResources | Operations
Platforms | Process Steps | Range Elements | Reference Systems | Responsible Parties | Series | Sources | Spatial Grids | Temporal Extents

MD_DataIdentification

Count Component Title Abstract
1 Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Damage to transportation systems is categorized in this set of images by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis. This set of slides depicts earthquake damage to streets, highways, bridges, overpasses, and railroads. Earthquakes in Guatemala, Japan, Mexico, Armenia, and the United States are represented.A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption oftransportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis. Ground Failure - A principal cause of earthquake damage to transportation systems is seismically generated ground failures in the form of landslides, lateral spreads, differential settlements, and ground cracks. During strong ground shaking, areas of clay-free sands and silts (where groundwater is near the surface) can temporarily lose strength and behave as viscous fluids. Consequently, highways and railways may settle or tilt in the liquefied soil, or are ripped apart as the ground flows or spreads laterally. Ground failure can cause movement of large blocks of soil on top of a liquefied subsurface. The lateral spreads, which break up into many fissures and scarps, usually develop on gentle slopes. In the 1964 Alaska earthquake, lateral spread failures damaged streets and highways, and restricted the use of railway grades and bridges. Ground failure also can dislodge rock and debris on steep slopes, triggering rockfalls, avalanches, and earth slides. The dislodged material is deposited on highways and railways, blocking traffic for hours or days.Faulting - Earthquake surface faults sometimes cross highways and railroads. Where this occurs, the roadbed may shift in the horizontal or vertical plane, or Roadway buckling sometimes results from ground shortening where thrust faulting occurs, and distortion can result from drag rebound or from concealed, closely spaced fractures.
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SV_Identification

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CI_Citation

Count Component Title Date Citation Identifier
1 Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems
    1994
Document
1 INFOTERRA Keyword Thesaurus
    1 NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
      1 NASA/GCMD Location Keywords
        Unresolved Xlinks
        GCMD Project Keywords at: /gmi:MI_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo[1]/gmd:MD_DataIdentification[1]/gmd:descriptiveKeywords[3]/gmd:MD_Keywords[1]/gmd:thesaurusName[1]
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        CI_Series

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        CI_ResponsibleParty

        Count Component Individual Organization Position Email Role Linkage
        1 NCEI (publisher) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce publisher
        3 Hazards Data Manager (pointOfContact) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce Hazards Data Manager haz.info@noaa.gov pointOfContact
        1 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp) originator
        1 National Geophysical Data Center publisher
        Unresolved Xlinks
        NCEI User Services (distributor) at: /gmi:MI_Metadata/gmd:distributionInfo[1]/gmd:MD_Distribution[1]/gmd:distributor[1]/gmd:MD_Distributor[1]/gmd:distributorContact[1]
        Anna Milan at: /gmi:MI_Metadata/gmd:metadataMaintenance[1]/gmd:MD_MaintenanceInformation[1]/gmd:contact[1]
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        CI_OnlineResource

        Count Component Linkage Name Description Function
        1 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/
        1 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazardimages/
        1 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=4&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44
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        MD_Identifier or RS_Identifier

        Count Component Code
        1 Document
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        EX_Extent

        Bounding Box Temporal Extent
        Count Component Description West East North South Start End
        1 -149.53 139.03 61.13 15.43 1946-04-01 1989-10-31
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        EX_GeographicBoundingBox

        Count Component West East North South
        1 -149.53 139.03 61.13 15.43
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        EX_TemporalExtent

        Count Component Start End
        1 1946-04-01 1989-10-31
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        MD_Format

        Count Component Name Version specification
        1 TIFF
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        MD_Medium

        Count Component Name mediumFormat mediumNote
        1 cdRom iso9660
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        MD_Constraints

        Count Component Use Limitation
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        MD_ReferenceSystem

        none found
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        MD_GridSpatialRepresentation

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        MD_Georeferenceable or MI_Georeferenceable

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        MD_Georectified or MI_Georectified

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        MD_Dimension

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        MD_CoverageDescription or MI_CoverageDescription

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        MD_Band or MI_Band

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        MI_RangeElementDescription

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        MD_AggregateInformation

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        LE_Source or LI_Source

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        LE_ProcessStep or LI_ProcessStep

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        MI_Operation

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        MI_Platform

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        MI_Instrument

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