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Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems

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    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.photos:G01197
    language:  eng; USA
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    contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        individualName:  Heather McCullough
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                voice:  (303) 497-3707
                facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
        role:  (CI_RoleCode)http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode
    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
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                code:  Document
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
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                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            presentationForm:
        abstract:  Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Damage to transportation systems is categorized in this set of images by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis. This set of slides depicts earthquake damage to streets, highways, bridges, overpasses, and railroads. Earthquakes in Guatemala, Japan, Mexico, Armenia, and the United States are represented.A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption oftransportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis. Ground Failure - A principal cause of earthquake damage to transportation systems is seismically generated ground failures in the form of landslides, lateral spreads, differential settlements, and ground cracks. During strong ground shaking, areas of clay-free sands and silts (where groundwater is near the surface) can temporarily lose strength and behave as viscous fluids. Consequently, highways and railways may settle or tilt in the liquefied soil, or are ripped apart as the ground flows or spreads laterally. Ground failure can cause movement of large blocks of soil on top of a liquefied subsurface. The lateral spreads, which break up into many fissures and scarps, usually develop on gentle slopes. In the 1964 Alaska earthquake, lateral spread failures damaged streets and highways, and restricted the use of railway grades and bridges. Ground failure also can dislodge rock and debris on steep slopes, triggering rockfalls, avalanches, and earth slides. The dislodged material is deposited on highways and railways, blocking traffic for hours or days.Faulting - Earthquake surface faults sometimes cross highways and railroads. Where this occurs, the roadbed may shift in the horizontal or vertical plane, or Roadway buckling sometimes results from ground shortening where thrust faulting occurs, and distortion can result from drag rebound or from concealed, closely spaced fractures.
        purpose:  Make available Damage Photos for research and education
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/4/4_88.jpg
            fileDescription:  The Prince William Sound earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded on the North American Continent. It was a magnitude 8.4 earthquake, felt over 500,000 square miles. The quake took 137 lives and caused $350-500 million in property damage.This photo shows a beached fishing boat in the Seward area. The tsunami waves severely damaged many boats and washed them into the lagoon north of Seward and onto the tidal flats at the head of Resurrection Bay. Dock and harbor facilities were destroyed. A section of the waterfront about 1,060 m long, including the docks and the small boat harbor, slid into Resurrection Bay.
            fileType:  JPEG
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Seismology > Earthquake Occurrences
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Tectonics > Faults
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
                date:
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Disasters > Catastrophic phenomena > Earthquakes
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Faults > Faults
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
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                title:  INFOTERRA Keyword Thesaurus
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            keyword:  WDC/MGG, BOULDER > World Data Center for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Boulder
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Location Keywords
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
        language:  eng; USA
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                eastBoundLongitude:  139.03
                southBoundLatitude:  15.43
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                    description:  Publication Date
                    beginPosition:  1946-04-01
                    endPosition:  1989-10-31
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    contentInfo:
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            name:  TIFF
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            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  User Services
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  (303) 497-6826
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ngdc.info@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  Free
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm slides: Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01197-SLI-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  None
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=4&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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              Real:  24
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                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/
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        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian