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Metadata Identifier: gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.photos:G01204

Aggregation Info | Bands | Citations | Constraints | Coverage Descriptions | Dimensions | Extents | Formats | Geographic Bounding Box
Georectified Information | Georeferenceable Information | Identifiers | Instruments | Mediums | OnlineResources | Operations
Platforms | Process Steps | Range Elements | Reference Systems | Responsible Parties | Series | Sources | Spatial Grids | Temporal Extents

MD_DataIdentification

Count Component Title Abstract
1 Earthquake Damage, Armenian SSR, December 7, 1988 On December 7, 1988, at 11:41 A.M. local time a magnitude 6.9 earthquake shook northwestern Armenia and was followed four minutes later by a magnitude 5.8 aftershock. Swarms of aftershocks, some as large as magnitude 5.0, continued for months in the area around Spitak. The earthquakes hit an area 80 km in diameter including the towns of Leninakan, Stepanavan, Kirovakan, and Spitak (Republic of Armenia). The region is part of a broad seismic zone stretching from Turkey to the Arabian Sea near India. Here, the Arabian land mass is slowly colliding with the Eurasian plate and thrusting up the Caucasus Mountains in the north. The earthquake occurred along a fairly small thrust fault running northwest-southeast, apparently right under Spitak. During the earthquake, the Spitak section to the northeast of the fault rode up over the southwest side. Geologists have located a 1.6 meter-high, 8-km long scarp just southeast of Spitak where fault movement broke the surface. The earthquake epicenter was located in the Lesser Caucasus highlands, 80 km south of the main range of the Caucasus Mountains. Historically, this area has experienced damaging earthquakes. In 1899 and 1940, damaging earthquakes occurred within 100 km of the 1988 epicenter. These events had magnitudes of 5.3 and 6.0 respectively. In 1920, a 6.2 magnitude earthquake that killed forty people occurred north of Spitak. In 1926, an earthquake of about magnitude 5.6 occurred 20 km southwest of Leninakan and reportedly caused more than 300 deaths and extensive damage. Despite its moderate size, the deaths and damage that the December 1988 earthquake caused made it the largest earthquake disaster since the 1976 magnitude 7.8 earthquake in Tangshan, China, that killed more than 240,000 people. The Town of Spitak (population 25,000) was nearly leveled and more than half of the structures in the City of Leninakan (population 250,000) were damaged or destroyed. Damage also occurred in Stepanavan and Kirovakan and other smaller cities. Direct economic losses were put at $14.2 billion (U.S.) at the United Nations official exchange rate. Twenty-five thousand were killed and 15,000 were injured by the earthquake. In addition 517,000 people became homeless. However, 15,000 people were rescued. Most of these rescues were made within the first few hours following the disaster. Many factors contributed to the magnitude of the disaster, including freezing temperatures, time of day, soil conditions, and inadequate building construction. A large number of medical facilities were destroyed, killing eighty percent of the medical professionals. In this earthquake, both design deficiencies and flawed construction practices were blamed for the large number of building collapses and resulting deaths. Many of the modern multi-storied buildings did not survive. Soil conditions also contributed to building failures. The high death rate may in part be attributed to the way the buildings fell apart. When concrete floor panels about three feet wide collapsed into compact rubble piles, little open space was left where trapped people might survive. The proportion of survivors trapped in the rubble of multi-storied buildings was approximately 3.5 times higher for the ground floor than for higher floors. The collapse of a large number of apartments-which had many occupants on upper floors-added to the number of fatalities. While the earthquake exposed the flaws in the construction, it also exposed the good in people. International teams cooperated in rescue efforts and people around the world contributed financial aid. With undaunted determination, Armenians began to rebuild their cities and their lives.
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SV_Identification

none found
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CI_Citation

Count Component Title Date Citation Identifier
1 Container Packet ID
    1 Earthquake Damage, Armenian SSR, December 7, 1988
      1994
    Document
    1 Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
      1 INFOTERRA Keyword Thesaurus
        1 GCMD Data Center Keywords NASA/GCMD Data Center Keywords
          2015-03-01
          1995-04-24
        1 NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
          1 GCMD Project Keywords NASA/GCMD Project Keywords
            2015-03-01
            1995-04-24
          1 Uncontrolled Keywords
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            CI_Series

            none found
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            CI_ResponsibleParty

            Count Component Individual Organization Position Email Role Linkage
            2 GCMD Valids http://gcmd.nasa.gov/learn/keyword_list.html
            1 Anna Milan Anna Milan DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce Metadata Specialist Anna.Milan@noaa.gov pointOfContact
            1 NCEI (publisher) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce publisher
            1 NCEI User Services (distributor) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce User Services ngdc.info@noaa.gov distributor
            3 Hazards Data Manager (pointOfContact) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce Hazards Data Manager haz.info@noaa.gov pointOfContact
            1 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp) originator
            2 GCMD User Support Office NASA GCMD User Support Office gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov publisher http://gcmd.nasa.gov/MailComments/MailComments.jsf?rcpt=gcmduso
            1 National Geophysical Data Center publisher
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            CI_OnlineResource

            Count Component Linkage Name Description Function
            2 http://gcmd.nasa.gov/MailComments/MailComments.jsf?rcpt=gcmduso GCMD Feedback Form Have a Comment for the GCMD? information
            2 http://gcmd.nasa.gov/learn/keyword_list.html GCMD's Science Keywords and Associated Directory Keywords This page describes the NASA GCMD Keywords, how to reference those keywords and provides download instructions. information
            1 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/
            2 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=11&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44
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            MD_Identifier or RS_Identifier

            Count Component Code
            1 Document
            1 G01143
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            EX_Extent

            Bounding Box Temporal Extent
            Count Component Description West East North South Start End
            1 44.16 44.3 41 40.48
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            EX_GeographicBoundingBox

            Count Component West East North South
            1 44.16 44.3 41 40.48
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            EX_TemporalExtent

            Count Component Start End
            1
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            MD_Format

            Count Component Name Version specification
            2 TIFF
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            MD_Medium

            Count Component Name mediumFormat mediumNote
            1 cdRom iso9660
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            MD_Constraints

            Count Component Use Limitation
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            MD_ReferenceSystem

            none found
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            MD_GridSpatialRepresentation

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            MD_Georeferenceable or MI_Georeferenceable

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            MD_Georectified or MI_Georectified

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            MD_Dimension

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            MD_CoverageDescription or MI_CoverageDescription

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            MD_Band or MI_Band

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            MI_RangeElementDescription

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            MD_AggregateInformation

            Count Component Title Code Association Type Code
            1 G01143 largerWorkCitation
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            LE_Source or LI_Source

            none found
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            LE_ProcessStep or LI_ProcessStep

            Count Component DateTime Description
            1 2015-04-22T00:00:00 NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
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            MI_Operation

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            MI_Platform

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            MI_Instrument

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