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Earthquake Damage, Armenian SSR, December 7, 1988
 (MI_Metadata)
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.photos:G01204
    language:  eng; USA
    characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        individualName:  Heather McCullough
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                voice:  (303) 497-3707
                facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
        role:  (CI_RoleCode)http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode
    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Earthquake Damage, Armenian SSR, December 7, 1988
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  Document
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            presentationForm:
        abstract:  On December 7, 1988, at 11:41 A.M. local time a magnitude 6.9 earthquake shook northwestern Armenia and was followed four minutes later by a magnitude 5.8 aftershock. Swarms of aftershocks, some as large as magnitude 5.0, continued for months in the area around Spitak. The earthquakes hit an area 80 km in diameter including the towns of Leninakan, Stepanavan, Kirovakan, and Spitak (Republic of Armenia). The region is part of a broad seismic zone stretching from Turkey to the Arabian Sea near India. Here, the Arabian land mass is slowly colliding with the Eurasian plate and thrusting up the Caucasus Mountains in the north. The earthquake occurred along a fairly small thrust fault running northwest-southeast, apparently right under Spitak. During the earthquake, the Spitak section to the northeast of the fault rode up over the southwest side. Geologists have located a 1.6 meter-high, 8-km long scarp just southeast of Spitak where fault movement broke the surface. The earthquake epicenter was located in the Lesser Caucasus highlands, 80 km south of the main range of the Caucasus Mountains. Historically, this area has experienced damaging earthquakes. In 1899 and 1940, damaging earthquakes occurred within 100 km of the 1988 epicenter. These events had magnitudes of 5.3 and 6.0 respectively. In 1920, a 6.2 magnitude earthquake that killed forty people occurred north of Spitak. In 1926, an earthquake of about magnitude 5.6 occurred 20 km southwest of Leninakan and reportedly caused more than 300 deaths and extensive damage. Despite its moderate size, the deaths and damage that the December 1988 earthquake caused made it the largest earthquake disaster since the 1976 magnitude 7.8 earthquake in Tangshan, China, that killed more than 240,000 people. The Town of Spitak (population 25,000) was nearly leveled and more than half of the structures in the City of Leninakan (population 250,000) were damaged or destroyed. Damage also occurred in Stepanavan and Kirovakan and other smaller cities. Direct economic losses were put at $14.2 billion (U.S.) at the United Nations official exchange rate. Twenty-five thousand were killed and 15,000 were injured by the earthquake. In addition 517,000 people became homeless. However, 15,000 people were rescued. Most of these rescues were made within the first few hours following the disaster. Many factors contributed to the magnitude of the disaster, including freezing temperatures, time of day, soil conditions, and inadequate building construction. A large number of medical facilities were destroyed, killing eighty percent of the medical professionals. In this earthquake, both design deficiencies and flawed construction practices were blamed for the large number of building collapses and resulting deaths. Many of the modern multi-storied buildings did not survive. Soil conditions also contributed to building failures. The high death rate may in part be attributed to the way the buildings fell apart. When concrete floor panels about three feet wide collapsed into compact rubble piles, little open space was left where trapped people might survive. The proportion of survivors trapped in the rubble of multi-storied buildings was approximately 3.5 times higher for the ground floor than for higher floors. The collapse of a large number of apartments-which had many occupants on upper floors-added to the number of fatalities. While the earthquake exposed the flaws in the construction, it also exposed the good in people. International teams cooperated in rescue efforts and people around the world contributed financial aid. With undaunted determination, Armenians began to rebuild their cities and their lives.
        purpose:  To provide long-term scientific data stewardship for the Nation's geophysical data, ensuring quality, integrity, and accessibility.
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
        resourceMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
            maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) irregular
        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/11/11_236.jpg
            fileDescription:  Collapse of an old stone masonry Armenian church in Leninakan. Churches are vulnerable to earthquake damage because of their high, unsupported roofs. Many such historical buildings either collapsed totally or sustained severe damage.
            fileType:  JPEG
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Seismology > Earthquake Occurrences
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Tectonics > Faults
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
                date:
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Disasters > Catastrophic phenomena > Earthquakes
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Faults > Faults
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  INFOTERRA Keyword Thesaurus
                date:
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Photo
            keyword:  Natural Hazard
            keyword:  Interior & Crust
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Uncontrolled Keywords
                date:
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  WDC/MGG, BOULDER > World Data Center for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Boulder
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NASA/GCMD Data Center Keywords
                date:
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Asia > Armenia
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
                date:
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            accessConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetIdentifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                authority:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  Container Packet ID
                    date:
                code:  G01143
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode)
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  44.16
                eastBoundLongitude:  44.3
                southBoundLatitude:  40.48
                northBoundLatitude:  41
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    description:  Publication Date
                    timePosition:  1988-12-07
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    contentInfo:
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  TIFF
            version:
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  TIFF
            version:
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  User Services
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  (303) 497-6826
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ngdc.info@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipping outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm slides; Earthquake Damage, Armenian SSR, December 7, 1988 Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered via the online store: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01204-SLI-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  None
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=11&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  None
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  $195.00/145.00 plus handling and shipping outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered via the online store: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
            transferSize:
              Real:  26674
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=11&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=11&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
            offLine:  (MD_Medium)
                name:  (MD_MediumNameCode) cdRom
                mediumFormat:  (MD_MediumFormatCode) iso9660
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian