ISO Table View Back to Collection NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC/MGG/Hazard_Photos
View Metadata As: Get Data, FAQ, HTML, 19139 XML
Assess Metadata For: Completeness, DOI Readiness, CSW Readiness, Components

Metadata Identifier: gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.photos:G01207

Aggregation Info | Bands | Citations | Constraints | Coverage Descriptions | Dimensions | Extents | Formats | Geographic Bounding Box
Georectified Information | Georeferenceable Information | Identifiers | Instruments | Mediums | OnlineResources | Operations
Platforms | Process Steps | Range Elements | Reference Systems | Responsible Parties | Series | Sources | Spatial Grids | Temporal Extents

MD_DataIdentification

Count Component Title Abstract
1 Earthquake Damage, Northern Iran, June 21, 1990 A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990. The event, the largest ever to be recorded in that part of the Caspian Sea region, may have been composed of two or more closely-spaced earthquakes occurring in rapid succession. These quakes, exceptionally close to the surface for this region, were also unusually destructive. This slide set depicts damage resulting from intensive ground motion and soil liquefaction. It shows damage to buildings of various types,including unreinforced masonry, steel structures, and concrete buildings. A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990, at 12:30 A.M. The earthquake, the largest ever to be recorded in that part of the Caspian Sea region, may have been amplified by two or more closely-spaced earthquakes occurring in rapid succession. The event, which was exceptionally close to the surface for this region, was unusually destructive. Earthquakes in Iran have killed thousands of people since the first was recorded about A.D. 700. There have been fifty-four significant earthquakes in Iran in the past thirty years alone. These earthquakes occur as Iran iscompressed by Africa and the Arabian Peninsula which is moving towards Eurasia at about 16 mm per year. The epicenter of the June 1990 earthquake was located in the collision zone between the Arabian plate and the Eurasian plate. This area-the Northern Seismic Zone-runs east and west along the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. This highly seismic region has reportedly experienced fourteen earthquakes with magnitudes between 6.0 and 7.7 within the last 1200 years. In 1962 an earthquake of similar magnitude in the area killed 12,000. The June 1990 earthquake caused widespread damage in areas within a 100 km radius of the epicenter near the City of Rasht and about two hundred kilometers northwest of Tehran. The cities of Rudbar, Manjil, and Lushan and 700 villages were destroyed, and at least three hundred more villages were slightly damaged. There was $7,000,000 in damage in Gilan and Zanjan provinces southwest of the Caspian Sea. There were 40,000 fatalities. Sixty thousand people were injured; 500,000 people were left homeless. Rescue operations were hampered by the fact that the earthquake occurred in the middle of the night, by adverse weather conditions, and by the rugged terrain of the mountain villages. Roads and highways were blocked by extensive landslides further hampering rescue operations. About 100,000 buildings collapsed or incurred major damage. Factors contributing to this extreme damage include: Construction materials. The use of brittle construction materials, brick, block, adobe, wooden timbers, and modern materials inappropriate for use in traditional structures. Construction techniques, and workmanship. The use of unreinforced masonry, and unreinforced sheer walls, poor welding of connections in steel frames, failure to tie steel support beams together, and the use of heavy masonry without adequate support in flooring, ceilings, and roofs. Inadequate design and detailing. Some modern structures lacked the symmetry of earlier traditional structures. Earthquake-resistant designs were not used. Building codes were inconsistent or unenforced. Liquefaction and failure of the soils. This was especially prominent on the shores of the Caspian Sea. Pressure from the earthquake forced ground water droplets between the grains of sand. The soil temporarily lost strength and behaved as a viscous liquid. With no firm support, structures sank or were spread apart by the liquefied soil. The unconsolidated soils may also have amplified the seismic vibrations. Often several factors contributed to the failure of a single structure. The single most important factor in building failures was the use of unreinforced masonry walls. Application of the information gained from the study of this event will result in the saving of lives when the nextearthquake strikes in this highly seismic region.
Top

SV_Identification

none found
Top

CI_Citation

Count Component Title Date Citation Identifier
1 Earthquake Damage, Northern Iran, June 21, 1990
    1994
Document
1 Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
    1 GCMD Data Center Keywords NASA/GCMD Data Center Keywords
      2015-03-01
      1995-04-24
    1 NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
      1 GCMD Project Keywords NASA/GCMD Project Keywords
        2015-03-01
        1995-04-24
      1 Uncontrolled Keywords
        Top

        CI_Series

        none found
        Top

        CI_ResponsibleParty

        Count Component Individual Organization Position Email Role Linkage
        2 GCMD Valids http://gcmd.nasa.gov/learn/keyword_list.html
        1 Anna Milan Anna Milan DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce Metadata Specialist Anna.Milan@noaa.gov pointOfContact
        1 NCEI (publisher) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce publisher
        1 NCEI User Services (distributor) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce User Services ngdc.info@noaa.gov distributor
        3 Hazards Data Manager (pointOfContact) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce Hazards Data Manager haz.info@noaa.gov pointOfContact
        1 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp) originator
        2 GCMD User Support Office NASA GCMD User Support Office gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov publisher http://gcmd.nasa.gov/MailComments/MailComments.jsf?rcpt=gcmduso
        1 National Geophysical Data Center publisher
        Top

        CI_OnlineResource

        Count Component Linkage Name Description Function
        2 http://gcmd.nasa.gov/MailComments/MailComments.jsf?rcpt=gcmduso GCMD Feedback Form Have a Comment for the GCMD? information
        2 http://gcmd.nasa.gov/learn/keyword_list.html GCMD's Science Keywords and Associated Directory Keywords This page describes the NASA GCMD Keywords, how to reference those keywords and provides download instructions. information
        2 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=14&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44
        Top

        MD_Identifier or RS_Identifier

        Count Component Code
        1 Document
        Top

        EX_Extent

        Bounding Box Temporal Extent
        Count Component Description West East North South Start End
        1 49.24 49.24 36.48 36.48 1990-06-21 1990-06-30
        Top

        EX_GeographicBoundingBox

        Count Component West East North South
        1 49.24 49.24 36.48 36.48
        Top

        EX_TemporalExtent

        Count Component Start End
        1 1990-06-21 1990-06-30
        Top

        MD_Format

        Count Component Name Version specification
        2 TIFF
        Top

        MD_Medium

        Count Component Name mediumFormat mediumNote
        1 cdRom iso9660
        Top

        MD_Constraints

        Count Component Use Limitation
        Top

        MD_ReferenceSystem

        none found
        Top

        MD_GridSpatialRepresentation

        none found
        Top

        MD_Georeferenceable or MI_Georeferenceable

        none found
        Top

        MD_Georectified or MI_Georectified

        none found
        Top

        MD_Dimension

        none found
        Top

        MD_CoverageDescription or MI_CoverageDescription

        none found
        Top

        MD_Band or MI_Band

        none found
        Top

        MI_RangeElementDescription

        none found
        Top

        MD_AggregateInformation

        none found
        Top

        LE_Source or LI_Source

        none found
        Top

        LE_ProcessStep or LI_ProcessStep

        Count Component DateTime Description
        1 2015-04-22T00:00:00 NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
        Top

        MI_Operation

        none found
        Top

        MI_Platform

        none found
        Top

        MI_Instrument

        none found
        Top