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Cape Mendocino, CA Earthquakes, April 25 & 26, 1992

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        individualName:  Heather McCullough
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                voice:  (303) 497-3707
                facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
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                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Cape Mendocino, CA Earthquakes, April 25 & 26, 1992
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
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        abstract:  On April 25, 1992, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes, magnitudes 6.6 and 6.7 occurred the next morning. The first earthquake was located six miles north of Petrolia, California, in a sparsely populated part of southwestern Humboldt County. Five small communities were located within a 50 mile radius of these events: Honeydew, Petrolia, Rio Dell, Scotia, and Ferndale. This slide set illustrates the effects and damage of a moderately large earthquake and moderate aftershocks on this sparsely settled area.Statistics - The first earthquake was located six miles The main earthquake came immediately after a Saturday morning parade at Ferndale. Horses reportedly became spooked during the parade (before the earthquake), but riders attributed it to flags fluttering in the wind along the parade route.Seismicity and Geology - The Cape Mendocino region of California's north coast is one of the most seismically active regions in the conterminous United States. This seismic zone coincides with the Mendocino Triple Junction, a tectonically unstable area where three tectonic plates join together.The earthquake of April 25 is exceptional for several reasons. It generated a tsunami that was recorded along the West Coast and measurable in the Hawaiian Islands. It also produced distinct uplift (maximum uplift = 1 m) along a 25-km-long section of the coastline. The April 25 event was the largest historic earthquake in this region with an epicenter clearly located on land, and the only damaging event that may have resulted from thrust faulting along the Cascadia subduction zone.Earth Effects - A broad zone of ground fractures, coastal uplift, and elevation changes are the only surface changes to indicate the location and tilt of the fault plane. Strong ground shaking during the earthquakes triggered numerous landslides in steep mountainous areas. A landslide at Scotia Bluffs (south of Scotia) temporarily interrupted traffic on the North Coast Railroad. Tension cracks, due to soil compaction and downhill slumping, restricted traffic on the Mattole Road between Honeydew, Petrolia, and Ferndale. Liquefaction took place in modern deposits of the Mattole River between Petrolia and Honeydew, and in the flood-plain deposits of the Eel and Salt Rivers. Soils liquefy when ground water near the surface is forced between the grains of sand during an earthquake. The sandy soil behaves like a very thick liquid. Structures then settle or tip in the liquefied soil, or are ripped apart as the ground spreads laterally or flows. Sand blows result from the eruption of liquefied sediment from the subsurface on to the ground. The eruption of liquefied sediment is facilitated by fissures in the ground, which are also produced by strong shaking during an earthquake.Damage - Collectively, these shocks caused significant damage to older structures in the sparsely populated, mountainous, epicentral region. The earthquake caused 98 injuries and moderate damage in Humboldt County. Losses topped $66 million. Single- and double-story, wood-frame houses and commercial buildings were the most common type of structures in the epicentral region, where lumber is the principal industry. Many foundations were the pier and post type, providing little resistance to lateral ground shaking. The earthquakes jarred many older homes off their foundations.
        purpose:  Make available Damage Photos for research and education
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
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                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
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            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/16/16_338.jpg
            fileDescription:  This yellow Victorian house in Ferndale shifted, causing the brick chimney to break into two parts. The bottom of the chimney shifted toward the east. The gray stripe along the side of the house shows the original position of the top half of the chimney.
            fileType:  JPEG
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Seismology > Earthquake Occurrences
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Tectonics > Faults
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
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            keyword:  Disasters > Catastrophic phenomena > Earthquakes
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Faults > Faults
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
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            keyword:  WDC/MGG, BOULDER > World Data Center for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Boulder
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            keyword:  North and Central America > United States > California > Humboldt > Cape Mendocino
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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                    description:  Publication Date
                    timePosition:  1992-04-25
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                        voice:  (303) 497-6826
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
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                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
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                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=16&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipment outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered via our online store at: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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                description:  slide set is out of stock and will not be produced again. Distribution has been modified and the SOP for the 35mm slide has been removed.
                dateTime:
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Heather McCullough
                    organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
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                            voice:  303.497.6277
                            facsimile:  303.497.6513
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                            deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC1 325 Broadway
                            city:  Boulder
                            administrativeArea:  CO
                            postalCode:  80305-3328
                            country:  USA
                            electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                        hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                        contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
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        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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