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Northridge, California Earthquake, January 17, 1994, Set 1
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    language:  eng; USA
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    contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        individualName:  Heather McCullough
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                voice:  (303) 497-3707
                facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
        role:  (CI_RoleCode)http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode
    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Northridge, California Earthquake, January 17, 1994, Set 1
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
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                code:  Document
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
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                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
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                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            presentationForm:
        abstract:  At 4:31 A.M. (Local time) on Monday, January 17, 1994, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake twenty miles west northwest of downtown Los Angeles awoke nearly everyone in southern California. Damage was most extensive in the San Fernando Valley, the Simi Valley, and in the northern part of the Los Angeles Basin. This slide set depicts the damage in Northridge-the epicentral area. Photos show damage to a shopping center, parking garages, and the interior and exterior of apartment buildings. After the earthquake, a total of 24,000 dwellings were vacated. The death toll from the quake was 57. The total cost of the earthquake is estimated to be at least $10 billion. The earthquake epicenter was at the intersection of Wilbur Avenue and Arminta Street in Northridge, a college community 20 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The main shock occurred on a shallowly-dipping, previously-unknown thrust fault beneath the suburb of Northridge. The rupture begin at about twelve miles depth and traveled upward and northward, spreading both eastward and westward. The focal mechanism of the main shock from both first motions and teleseisms shows a N 60 degrees west striking and 35 degrees to 45 degrees south dipping plane. Rock on southside of the fault surged upward and over the rock on the north side. As a result of the quake, the San Fernando Valley is slightly narrower and themountains just north of the valley are slightly higher. The Northridge Fashion Mall was extensively damaged by the earthquake. Bullocks Department Store in the mall collapsed. One parking structurecollapsed into a pile about twenty feet high. Other department stores and parking structures were also damaged. Windows were shattered throughout the mall. Severe damage and partial collapses were seen also in other, smaller, shopping centers near the epicenter. Northridge Meadows Apartment Complex - Not far from the Northridge Fashion Mall sixteen people were killed when the 164-unit Northridge Meadows Apartment collapsed. There was an area of several square miles in Northridge where there was intense damage to apartments built in the 1960's and early 1970's, prior to the latestrevisions in the building codes for multi-family housing. Many of these apartment buildings had "soft" first stories. California State University Campus - Most of the sixty buildings on the campus performed well and there were no injuries or deaths on the campus. One parking structure collapsed and three buildings were severely damaged and were unrepairable. Fifteen to twenty buildings will require structural repairs and retrofitting to meet code. Inside the buildings the contents were severely disturbed. Freight Train Derailed - A sixty-four car Southern Pacific freight train carrying hazardous material was derailed between the communities of Chatsworth and Northridge. Sulfuric acid was released from one of the sixteen tank cars carrying the substance. Two thousand gallons of diesel fuel spilled from the locomotive. Northridge Community Center Hospital - At Northridge Community Center, located near the epicenter, patients in wheelchairs were rushed outside. There was no water, no power, and no phones. At the same time the center was deluged with requests for treatment from people suffering injuries in the earthquake. The Northridge earthquake is significant since it is the most expensive earthquake and one of the most expensive natural disasters in United States history yet it occurred on a previously unknown fault.
        purpose:  Make available Damage Photos for research and education
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
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        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/18/18_379.jpg
            fileDescription:  Parking structure on the campus of California State University. The bowed columns are of reinforced concrete. The structure has precast moment- resisting-concrete frames on the exterior and a precast concrete interior designed for vertical loads. The inside of the structure failed, and with each aftershock the outside collapsed slowly toward the inside until finally the west side failed totally. The reinforced concrete columns were extremely bent.
            fileType:  JPEG
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Seismology > Earthquake Occurrences
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Tectonics > Faults
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
                date:
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Disasters > Catastrophic Phenomena > Earthquakes
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Faults > Faults
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
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            keyword:  WDC/MGG, BOULDER > World Data Center for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Boulder
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Data Center Keywords
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        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  North and Central America > United States > California > Northridge
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
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                title:  Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
                date:
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
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                southBoundLatitude:  34.13
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                  TimeInstant:
                    description:  Publication Date
                    timePosition:  1994-01-17
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    contentInfo:
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        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  TIFF
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                individualName:  User Services
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  (303) 497-6826
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ngdc.info@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  Free
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm slides: Northridge, California Earthquake, January 17, 1994, Set 1;On January 17, 1994, Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered via our online store at: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01211-SLI-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
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                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=18&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  None
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                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipment outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered via our online store at: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
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                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian