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Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake, January 17, 1995

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        individualName:  Heather McCullough
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
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                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
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    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake, January 17, 1995
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
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        abstract:  The Earthquake - At 5:46 A.M. local time on January 17, 1995, a major earthquake occurred near the City of Kobe, Japan. The 6.9 magnitude earthquake had 40 km of bilateral rupture from a hypocenter 10 km under the northern tip of the island of Awaji in the Sea of Japan. The greatest intensity of shaking was in a narrow corridor of two to four kilometers stretching 40 km along the coast of Osaka Bay. The ground moved as much as five meters in some places. The worst destruction ran along the previously undetected fault on the coast, east of Kobe. Kobe's major business, industrial and port facilities, and residences are located in this strip. Note: This earthquake is also called the Hyogo-Ken Nambu, Japan, Earthquake and Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake.The Damage - The earthquake caused extensive damage to the coastal cities that border Osaka Bay and to the northern portion of Awaji Island. Inland cities located near the northern end of the fault rupture sustained significant damage. Osaka (Japan's second largest city), Kyoto, and Shiga, farther to the northeast, reported extensive damage from the quake. The earthquake caused 5,480 deaths, the highest death toll in Japan since the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 (142,000 deaths). About 94,900 people were injured; nearly 317,000 people moved to evacuation centers.Buildings - More than 192,700 houses and buildings were totally destroyed by the earthquake. Most of the damaged buildings were unsafe to occupy and had to be torn down later. The repair costs to buildings were estimated at more than $100 billion (U.S. Dollars). The design code in effect at the time of the construction was a major factor in determining the extent of damage to the commercial and residential buildings. Modern high-rise buildings typically fared better than older residential construction.Transportation - Kobe is located within the main transportation corridor between central and southern Honshu. The Hanshin Expressway, supported by large hammerhead reinforced concrete piers, failed over a twenty kilometer length. The supporting steel girders of the Wangan Expressway (along the harbor shore) were dislodged from their seats, although few collapsed. Rail facilities were particularly hard hit. All three main lines through the corridor sustained embankment failures, overpass collapses, distorted rails, and other severe damage. The elevated viaduct that carries the Bullet Train was severely damaged when supporting columns underwent shear failure. There was damage to the subway systems, including a rare instance of severe earthquake damage to a modern tunnel for reasons other than fault displacement near the portal. Rail and road transportation disruption affected a number of companies relying on rapid production systems. Due to effects on transportation, automobile and motorcycle manufacturers temporarily shut down factories located far from the earthquake site.Port Damage - The port of Kobe, one of the largest container facilities in the world, sustained major damage. Shipping had to be diverted to other ports. Cessation of port functions impeded the shipment of raw materials and parts between businesses in Japan and their subsidiaries or partners overseas. This impacted the electronics, apparel, and auto manufacturing industries. There was severe and widespread liquefaction as a result of the earthquake. Lateral ground deformation caused the piers of the highway bridge and electric rail bridge between Port Island and Kobe to lean between two and three degrees toward the waterfront. Of 186 heavy shipping berths, 179 were inoperable after the earthquake.Utilities - Electric power and telecommunications services were not disrupted, but most of Kobe lost essential services such as water, water treatment, and gas utilities. Electrical power performed well with very little reduction in service during the earthquake, and was completely restored within one week. Underground water pipelines sustained severe damage in the earthquake. Numerous breaks resulted in a general lack of service in Kobe, Ashiya, and Nishinomiya. Water was restored within two weeks and gas was restored within a month.Fires - Almost 150 fires started, most within minutes of the earthquake, and primarily in densely built-up low rise areas of the city. The fires destroyed one million square meters of residential area in Kobe.
        purpose:  To provide long-term scientific data stewardship for the Nation's geophysical data, ensuring quality, integrity, and accessibility.
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
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            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
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                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
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                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
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            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/21/21_430.jpg
            fileDescription:  Another office building with a partially destroyed first floor. The majority of partial or complete collapses were in the older, reinforced concrete buildings built before 1975. However, significant non-structural damage was also observed for buildings of relatively recent steel or composite construction.
            fileType:  JPEG
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Seismology > Earthquake Occurrences
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Tectonics > Faults
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
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            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Disasters > Catastrophic phenomena > Earthquakes
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
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            keyword:  Photo
            keyword:  Natural Hazard
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            keyword:  WDC/MGG, BOULDER > World Data Center for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Boulder
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            keyword:  Asia > Japan > Kobe
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                title:  Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: No Constraints Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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                    description:  Publication Date
                    beginPosition:  1995-01-17
                    endPosition:  1995-01-31
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                        voice:  (303) 497-6826
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                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ngdc.info@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
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                fees:  Free on the web
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                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipping outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered via our online store at: http://nndc.noaa.gov/?http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact data center for information
                turnaround:  4 days
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                fees:  No charge
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=21&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact data center for information
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        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian