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Seismic Creep
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    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.photos:G01216
    language:  eng; USA
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        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
        positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
    dateStamp:  2015-10-14
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Seismic Creep
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  Documents
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                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
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                        city:  Boulder
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            presentationForm:
        abstract:  Seismic creep is the constant or periodic movement on a fault as contrasted with the sudden erupture associated with an earthquake. It is a usually slow deformation of rock resulting from constant stress being applied over a period of time. Sometimes a seismic slip is observed at the ground surface along a ruptured fault that has produced a substantial earthquake. Examples are from the Hollister and Hayward, California, region. Several of the slides are split images of a location, comparing fault movement over the years. Seismic creep is the constant or periodic movement on a fault as contrasted with the sudden rupture associated with an earthquake. It is a usually slow deformation of rock resulting from constant stress being applied over a period of time. Active faults exhibit a variety of deformational phenomena; the most obvious is earthquake slip. In addition, faults may continue to move after an earthquake occurs (after slip), move slowly over time in the absence of earthquake activity (fault creep), or move slowly as pressure builds before an earthquake (pre-seismic slip). Fault creep may be constant over time, or the motion may alternate between periods of slow and relatively rapid movement. Usually, such episodes of fault slip are a seismic-that is, they are not accompanied by local earthquakes. The characteristics of the fault itself and the total mechanical system that produces the fault movement are the major factors determining the type of creep. As more information is acquired about the fault itself and about the stresses upon it, interpretations are made about movement along that fault, including creep. Fault creep (horizontal fault slippage) has been identified on a number of faults around the world including the north Anatolian fault at Ismetpasa in Turkey, along the Jordan Valley rift in Israel, and the Hayward, San Andreas, and Calaveras faults in California. Sometimes a seismic slip is observed at the ground surface along a ruptured fault that has produced a substantial earthquake. For example, along the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California, offsets of road pavement increased by a few centimeters in the days following the June 27, 1966, earthquake. Such continued adjustment of the crustal rock after the initial major offset may be caused partly by the minor slips that produce aftershocks. They may also result from the yielding of the weaker surface rocks and gouge in the fault zone as they accommodate to theadjusted tectonic forces in the region. Seismic creep, when it occurs in developed areas, may result in structural damage. Creep has damaged the huge concrete-lined water tunnel from the Sierra Nevada that brings water to cities on the east of San Francisco Bay. It has damaged Berkeley Memorial Stadium at the University of California and the Almaden Cienega Winery near Hollister. The tunnel and the stadium straddle the active Hayward fault which is undergoing right-lateral slip at the rate of 2 to 5 millimeters a year. When the tunnel was drained in 1966, cracks several centimeters across were discovered. These encircled the concrete lining where the tunnel and fault zone intersect. A concrete drainage culvert under the stadium shows considerable cracking where it crosses the Hayward fault trace; instruments that were placed across the cracks in 1966 show that the right-lateral slipcontinues to occur. Obviously, faults should be avoided when considering locations for man-made structures. When utility lines, roads, and railroads must be laid across active faults, they should have jointed or flexible sections within the fault zone. Slides for this set were provided by Joe Dellinger, AMOCO TTC 1F10, 4502 E. 41st, Tulsa, OK 74135, and by Dr. Sue Ellen Hirschfeld, Department of Geological Sciences, California State University, Hayward, CA 94542-3088. Their slides are in the public domain, copyright-free. Dr. Eduard Berg asks that you contact him personally if you intend to reproduce his slides. He may be reached at: University of Hawaii, Department of Geology and Geophysics, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI, 96822.
        purpose:  Make available Damage Photos for research and education
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
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        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/23/23_465.jpg
            fileDescription:  Curb at north end of crosswalk by Central and Locust Streets, August 4, 1992. Graffiti in the cement of the curb indicates it was poured April 22, 1975, so this photo demonstrates 16 years of creep on the Calaveras fault. The coin is used for scale.
            fileType:  JPEG
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > Erosion/Sedimentation > Entrainment
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > Erosion/Sedimentation > Erosion
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > Erosion/Sedimentation > Weathering
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Tectonics > Faults
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            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Disasters > Catastrophic phenomena > Landslides
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Faults > Faults
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
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                    date:  1995-04-24
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                edition:  8.1
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                            linkage: http://gcmd.nasa.gov/learn/keyword_list.html
                            name:  GCMD's Science Keywords and Associated Directory Keywords
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            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
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                    date:  1995-04-24
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                            linkage: http://gcmd.nasa.gov/MailComments/MailComments.jsf?rcpt=gcmduso
                            name:  GCMD Feedback Form
                            description:  Have a Comment for the GCMD?
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                            linkage: http://gcmd.nasa.gov/learn/keyword_list.html
                            name:  GCMD's Science Keywords and Associated Directory Keywords
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: No Constraints Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
        language:  eng; USA
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                  TimePeriod:
                    description:  Publication Date
                    beginPosition:  1966-12-00
                    endPosition:  1993-12-00
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    contentInfo:
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                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
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                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
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                fees:  Free on the web
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                fees:  None
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=23&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  None
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipping outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
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                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/
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                other:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
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                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency: (unknown)
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        maintenanceNote:  This record was automatically modified on 2015-10-14 to include references to NCEI where applicable.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Anna Milan
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            positionName:  Metadata Specialist
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                    voice:  (303) 497-5099
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
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                    deliveryPoint:  Mail Code E/NE52
                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Anna.Milan@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  9:00 - 5:00 Mountain
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            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact