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Major Tsunamis of 1992 - Nicaragua and Indonesia

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    contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        individualName:  Heather McCullough
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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            phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                voice:  (303) 497-3707
                facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Major Tsunamis of 1992 - Nicaragua and Indonesia
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
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                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
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                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
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        abstract:  At 7:16 p.m. on September 1, 1992, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.0 generated a tsunami with waves between eight and fifteen meters high that struck twenty-six towns along 250 km of Nicaragua's Pacific coast. More than 40,000 people were affected by the loss of their homes or means of income. The waves left 116 dead, 63 missing, and another 489 injured. Tsunami inundation of 1,000 meters was reported at Masachapa, where at least 15 people were killed. The tsunami caused an estimated US $25 million in damage and losses. Fifty-three percent of this damage occurred to housing. Commerce, tourism, fishing, water supplies, waste disposal, electricity, and port infrastructure also were damaged. Low income people suffered the most, incurring the loss of homes, fishing boats, and sources of income. The earthquake epicenter was located at 11.8 deg N and 87.4 deg W, about 120 km west-southwest of the city of Managua. The earthquake was caused by the interaction of the Cocos and Caribbean tectonic plates, and occurred within a seismic gap located along the intersection of those plates. Several aftershocks of decreasing magnitude followed. The unusual wave height and destructiveness of the tsunami resulted from the relatively shallow earthquake depth and a subterranean landslide. The tsunami moved rapidly toward the Nicaragua coast arriving at some coastal locations just twenty minutes after the earthquake. The tsunami occurred in the evening when the fishing boats were docked; many of them were lost or damaged by the waves. Several tourist centers, including hotels and other commercial establishments, were damaged and two schools were destroyed. The ecology of the coastal area was affected as the waves and high salinity sea water destroyed plants, fish, turtles, and fish and turtle eggs. The December 1992 Tsunami in Indonesia On December 12, 1992 at 05:29 UT a 7.8 surface wave magnitude earthquake occurred in the Flores region of Indonesia (8 deg 31' S, 121deg 54' E). Flores Island is located about 1,800 km east of Jakarta. The death toll as a result of the combined earthquake and tsunami effects was more than two thousand. This includes 1,490 at Maumere and 700 on Babi Island. (About one-half of the deaths were attributed to the tsunami.) More than 500 people were seriously injured and 90,000 left homeless. In addition, 28,118 houses, 785 school buildings, 307 mosques, and 493 store and office buildings were destroyed or damaged. Nineteen people were killed and 130 houses were destroyed on Kalaotoa. Severe damage occurred at Maumere with 90 percent of the buildings destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami. Damage also occurred on Sumba and Alor. Tsunami inundation of 300 meters with wave heights of 25 meters were reported on Flores Island along with landslides and ground cracks at several locations around the island. The maximum tsunami runup height of 26.2 m was measured at Riangkroko where 163 people lost their lives. Severe coastal erosion occurred during the tsunami, exposing eroded coral complexes and lowering coastal land surfaces. Coastline areas were characterized by the deposition ofextensive and continuous sediment sheets up to one meter in thickness. Wave reflection off Flores Island may have been partially responsible for the devastation on Babi Island. This Flores event was catastrophic in terms of human casualties and property damage, resulting from the earthquake and the tsunamis. However, the event also provided much information about the geophysical, geological, and engineering aspects of tsunamis and has enhanced our overall knowledge of tsunamis and their effects.
        purpose:  To provide hazard information.
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
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            fileDescription:  The effects of the tsunami at Wuhring, Flores Island. Although the tsunami heights at this location were lower than elsewhere (only about 3.5 m) the waves swept entirely over the 400 m by 200 m peninsula inundating the densely populated community of Wuhring and killing 100. Here the damage was not as severe as on Babi Island. The waves left conical sand accumulations inside the houses, and at some locations the depth of the debris was about one meter.
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Waves > Tsunamis
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
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            keyword:  Disasters > Catastrophic Phenomena > Tsunami
            keyword:  Disasters > Catastrophic Phenomena > Landslides
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  INFOTERRA Keyword Thesaurus
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            keyword:  WDC/MGG, BOULDER > World Data Center for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Boulder
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        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  North and Central America > Nicaragua
            keyword:  Asia > Indonesia
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
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                    description:  Publication Date
                    beginPosition:  1992-09-01
                    endPosition:  1992-12-31
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    contentInfo:
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                        voice:  (303) 497-6826
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
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                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ngdc.info@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
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                fees:  Free
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm slides: Major Tsunamis of 1992 - Nicaragua and Indonesia Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01219-SLI-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
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                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=26&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipment outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
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        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian