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Metadata Identifier: gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.photos:G01225

Aggregation Info | Bands | Citations | Constraints | Coverage Descriptions | Dimensions | Extents | Formats | Geographic Bounding Box
Georectified Information | Georeferenceable Information | Identifiers | Instruments | Mediums | OnlineResources | Operations
Platforms | Process Steps | Range Elements | Reference Systems | Responsible Parties | Series | Sources | Spatial Grids | Temporal Extents

MD_DataIdentification

Count Component Title Abstract
1 Hawaii Volcanism: Impact on the Environment Fewer than one hundred people have been killed by eruptions in the recorded history of Hawaii, and only one death has occurred in the 20th Century. However, the lava flows are highly destructive to populated and cultivated areas. This set depicts the negative impact of lava flows on communities, vegetation, marine life, roads, and coastlines. It also illustrates the benefits of Hawaii volcanism such as the production of geothermal power, increase in land area of the islands and other benefits. More than 270,000 people have been killed directly or indirectly by volcanic activity worldwide during the past 500 years. Nearly all of the deaths have been caused by explosive eruptions of composite volcanoes along the boundaries of the Earth's tectonic plates. Hawaii's volcanoes have more fluid, less gaseous magmas and produce quieter, less hazardous eruptions. The village of Kapoho was entirely destroyed during the 1960 eruption in the lower east rift (fissure) zone of Kilauea. In the 1980s, flows from Kilauea's east rift largely destroyed Royal Gardens and Kalapana. The March-April 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa threatened Hilo, with a population of about 40,000. Advancing nearly 26 km in about 5 days, the active flows produced a bright red glow in the night sky visible from Hilo. Much to the relief of the citizens, the flows stopped about 6.5 km short of the city's outskirts. These outskirts are built in part on the pahoehoelava (smooth ropy lava) flows produced by the 1881 eruption of Mauna Loa, indicating that Hilo is well within the reach of lava flows from the volcano. Although the destructive effects of volcanism are more obvious, volcanoes also provide many benefits to mankind. They are the major contributors to the building of continents, and all oceanic islands owe their origin directly or indirectly to volcanism. Over the billions of years of Earth's existence, water has been released from its interior by volcanoes and hot springs near volcanic intrusions. Geothermal power produced by volcanism is an inexpensive alternative energy source. The Hawaiian Islands were built over millions of years by lava flows. The lava flows have provided the fertile soil in which crops such as pineapples, sugar cane, and coffee thrive, and lush tropical vegetation flourishes. The flows start to weather quickly in areas with adequate rainfall. In some cases revegetation can begin in less than one year after the eruption. The lava flows are very fertile, especially if they have been covered by ash. The fine ash particles retain water within reach of plant roots and release plant foods such as potassium. Vegetation that has been destroyed by ash falls returns in a more luxuriant form. However in the island's arid areas, it may take thousands of years to form fertile soils from erosion and breakdown of lava. Volcanic rocks provide an abundant local source of materials for landscaping, construction, and road building. The majestic mountains andbeautiful black sand beaches of Hawaii that draw thousands of tourists each year are products of volcanism. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park provides one of the few places in the world where visitors can safely view volcanic processes. The Hawaiian volcanoes are contributing to the overall understanding of volcanoes; they provide a natural laboratory for study of the eruptivephenomena. Careful research and constant observation over long periods of time are important. From these data, volcanologists are learning to interpret activity in order to advise local officials of imminent eruptions.
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SV_Identification

none found
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CI_Citation

Count Component Title Date Citation Identifier
1 Container Packet ID
    1 Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
      1 Hawaii Volcanism: Impact on the Environment
        1994
      Document
      1 INFOTERRA Keyword Thesaurus
        1 GCMD Data Center Keywords NASA/GCMD Data Center Keywords
          2015-03-01
          1995-04-24
        1 NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
          1 GCMD Project Keywords NASA/GCMD Project Keywords
            2015-03-01
            1995-04-24
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          CI_Series

          none found
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          CI_ResponsibleParty

          Count Component Individual Organization Position Email Role Linkage
          2 GCMD Valids http://gcmd.nasa.gov/learn/keyword_list.html
          1 Anna Milan Anna Milan DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce Metadata Specialist Anna.Milan@noaa.gov pointOfContact
          1 NCEI (publisher) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce publisher
          1 NCEI User Services (distributor) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce User Services ngdc.info@noaa.gov distributor
          3 Hazards Data Manager (pointOfContact) DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce Hazards Data Manager haz.info@noaa.gov pointOfContact
          1 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp) originator
          2 GCMD User Support Office NASA GCMD User Support Office gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov publisher http://gcmd.nasa.gov/MailComments/MailComments.jsf?rcpt=gcmduso
          1 National Geophysical Data Center publisher
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          CI_OnlineResource

          Count Component Linkage Name Description Function
          2 http://gcmd.nasa.gov/MailComments/MailComments.jsf?rcpt=gcmduso GCMD Feedback Form Have a Comment for the GCMD? information
          2 http://gcmd.nasa.gov/learn/keyword_list.html GCMD's Science Keywords and Associated Directory Keywords This page describes the NASA GCMD Keywords, how to reference those keywords and provides download instructions. information
          1 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/
          2 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=32&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44
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          MD_Identifier or RS_Identifier

          Count Component Code
          1 Document
          1 G01143
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          EX_Extent

          Bounding Box Temporal Extent
          Count Component Description West East North South Start End
          1 -155.61 -155.29 19.47 19.42 1955-01-00 1990-02-00
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          EX_GeographicBoundingBox

          Count Component West East North South
          1 -155.61 -155.29 19.47 19.42
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          EX_TemporalExtent

          Count Component Start End
          1 1955-01-00 1990-02-00
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          MD_Format

          Count Component Name Version specification
          2 TIFF
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          MD_Medium

          Count Component Name mediumFormat mediumNote
          1 cdRom iso9660
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          MD_Constraints

          Count Component Use Limitation
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          MD_ReferenceSystem

          none found
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          MD_GridSpatialRepresentation

          none found
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          MD_Georeferenceable or MI_Georeferenceable

          none found
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          MD_Georectified or MI_Georectified

          none found
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          MD_Dimension

          none found
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          MD_CoverageDescription or MI_CoverageDescription

          none found
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          MD_Band or MI_Band

          none found
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          MI_RangeElementDescription

          none found
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          MD_AggregateInformation

          Count Component Title Code Association Type Code
          1 G01143 largerWorkCitation
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          LE_Source or LI_Source

          none found
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          LE_ProcessStep or LI_ProcessStep

          Count Component DateTime Description
          1 2015-04-22T00:00:00 NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
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          MI_Operation

          none found
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          MI_Platform

          none found
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          MI_Instrument

          none found
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