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Hawaii Volcanism: Impact on the Environment
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        individualName:  Heather McCullough
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                voice:  (303) 497-3707
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                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
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                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Hawaii Volcanism: Impact on the Environment
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
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                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
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                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
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        abstract:  Fewer than one hundred people have been killed by eruptions in the recorded history of Hawaii, and only one death has occurred in the 20th Century. However, the lava flows are highly destructive to populated and cultivated areas. This set depicts the negative impact of lava flows on communities, vegetation, marine life, roads, and coastlines. It also illustrates the benefits of Hawaii volcanism such as the production of geothermal power, increase in land area of the islands and other benefits. More than 270,000 people have been killed directly or indirectly by volcanic activity worldwide during the past 500 years. Nearly all of the deaths have been caused by explosive eruptions of composite volcanoes along the boundaries of the Earth's tectonic plates. Hawaii's volcanoes have more fluid, less gaseous magmas and produce quieter, less hazardous eruptions. The village of Kapoho was entirely destroyed during the 1960 eruption in the lower east rift (fissure) zone of Kilauea. In the 1980s, flows from Kilauea's east rift largely destroyed Royal Gardens and Kalapana. The March-April 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa threatened Hilo, with a population of about 40,000. Advancing nearly 26 km in about 5 days, the active flows produced a bright red glow in the night sky visible from Hilo. Much to the relief of the citizens, the flows stopped about 6.5 km short of the city's outskirts. These outskirts are built in part on the pahoehoelava (smooth ropy lava) flows produced by the 1881 eruption of Mauna Loa, indicating that Hilo is well within the reach of lava flows from the volcano. Although the destructive effects of volcanism are more obvious, volcanoes also provide many benefits to mankind. They are the major contributors to the building of continents, and all oceanic islands owe their origin directly or indirectly to volcanism. Over the billions of years of Earth's existence, water has been released from its interior by volcanoes and hot springs near volcanic intrusions. Geothermal power produced by volcanism is an inexpensive alternative energy source. The Hawaiian Islands were built over millions of years by lava flows. The lava flows have provided the fertile soil in which crops such as pineapples, sugar cane, and coffee thrive, and lush tropical vegetation flourishes. The flows start to weather quickly in areas with adequate rainfall. In some cases revegetation can begin in less than one year after the eruption. The lava flows are very fertile, especially if they have been covered by ash. The fine ash particles retain water within reach of plant roots and release plant foods such as potassium. Vegetation that has been destroyed by ash falls returns in a more luxuriant form. However in the island's arid areas, it may take thousands of years to form fertile soils from erosion and breakdown of lava. Volcanic rocks provide an abundant local source of materials for landscaping, construction, and road building. The majestic mountains andbeautiful black sand beaches of Hawaii that draw thousands of tourists each year are products of volcanism. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park provides one of the few places in the world where visitors can safely view volcanic processes. The Hawaiian volcanoes are contributing to the overall understanding of volcanoes; they provide a natural laboratory for study of the eruptivephenomena. Careful research and constant observation over long periods of time are important. From these data, volcanologists are learning to interpret activity in order to advise local officials of imminent eruptions.
        purpose:  Make available Damage Photos for research and education
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
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                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
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            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/32/32_647.jpg
            fileDescription:  The Wahaula Visitor Center was engulfed by a lava flow and burst into flames (June 22, 1989). Note flow at left in photo. A park maintenance area was also destroyed along with other structures near the coast. After flowing past the site of the Visitor Center, the lava began entering the sea at two new locations: Kapapau Point and Poupou Point.
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Eruption Dynamics
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Lava
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Magma
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Pyroclastics
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Volcanic Ash/Dust
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            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Volcanoes > Volcanoes
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            keyword:  North and Central America > United States > Hawaii
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                title:  Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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        language:  eng; USA
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                    beginPosition:  1955-01-00
                    endPosition:  1990-02-00
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                        voice:  (303) 497-6826
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                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
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                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
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                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipping outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm slides; Hawaii Volcanism: Impact on the Environment Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01225-SLI-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
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                fees:  Free download
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=32&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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