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Hawaii Volcanism: Lava Forms
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        individualName:  Heather McCullough
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Hawaii Volcanism: Lava Forms
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
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                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
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                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
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            presentationForm:
        abstract:  Over the last several million years the Hawaiian Islands have been built of successive lava flows. They are the most recent additions in a long line of volcanoes that extends up the intersection ofthe Aleutian Island chain with the Kamchatka peninsula. This set includes very colorful imagesof lava fountains, lakes, cascades, flows, spatter and lava entry to the sea from eruptionsoccurring over the last 30 years. Most of these volcanoes are no longer visible above the sea surface. These islands and sea mounts formed as the Pacific plate moved over a hot spot in Earth's mantle. The amount of lava that has erupted here is difficult to comprehend. Mauna Loa, on the Island of Hawaii (Big Island) is the largest volcanic structure in the world with a volume estimated at 42,000 km3. It rises from the ocean floor, 5,000 m below sea level, to a height above sea level of 4,172 meters. In addition to eruptions at the summit, Hawaiian volcanoes have flank eruptions with lavaflowing several kilometers from the vent. The height of such volcanic structures (known as shield volcanoes) increases only slightly while they continually grow in width. Hawaii's usually non-explosive eruptions are characterized by the relatively quiet outpouring of lava known as effusive eruptions. High temperature, a low gas content, and exceptionally fluid lava are typical of these eruptions. The high fluidity of Hawaiian lava comes from its basaltic composition. They are contrasted to the more viscous dacite erupted explosively at Mount Saint Helens in 1980. Hawaiian eruptions usually start with lava issuing vertically from a central vent or a fissure in a rhythmic jet-like eruption, called a lava fountain. The lava fountains vary widely in form, size and duration depending on the shape of the vent, volume of lava, and other conditions. Fountains spouting from a series of nearly continuous fissures are called curtains of fire. As the eruption proceeds the lava fountain activity is confined to a single vent or opening. The lava may form lava lakes of fluid rock in summit craters or in pit craters on the flanks of the volcanoes. If the lava lake forms around an active vent, the crust breaks up in response to circulation and sloshing of the molten lavabeneath. Lava falling from fountains and flowing from vents often forms glowing lava streams or lava flows. During some Mauna Loa eruptions flows rushed down the steep slopes at 58 km per hour. As the eruption continues, the lava solidifies along the edges of the flow building levees or ramparts that allow the level of the lava to be raised. If the roof of the channel hardens and forms a solid crust the molten lava may continue to flow within what has become a lava tube. Lava tubes generally have arched roofs but their floors may be flat, formed by the surface of the last liquid lava to move through them. The walls of such tubes become thermal insulators allowing the lava to flow greater distances from the vent. Lava streams that plunge over cliffs or the steep walls of craters form lava cascades or lava falls. There are two main types of lava flows: pahoehoe, and aa. The Hawaiian names refer to the surface character of the lava. Many flows consist ofpahoehoe upstream and change to aa downstream. However, aa flows do not change into pahoehoe. The type of lava is determined by the initial gascontent of the lava, the changes in lava viscosity and the rate of deformation (shear strain of the lava during flow and cooling). Pahoehoe has a smooth surface. In some areas it is wrinkled and twisted resembling folds in heavy cloth. This appearance results from the dragging and twisting of the thin, hot, still-plastic crust of the flow by movement of the liquid lava underneath. The surfaces of most pahoehoeflows are rolling or undulating. One can walk across a moving flow, and although the crust may bend, it does not break. The crust of a lava flow is a poor conductor of heat so the part of the flow beneath the crust may remain hot and liquid for long periods. Shrinkage on cooling and distortion by the movement of the liquid beneath it causes fractures in the crust. The interior of thick flows may remain liquid for weeks, months, or year. A is characterized by a rough, rubbled surface. The layer of angular jagged fragments is known as clinker. The streams of molten lava that feedaa flows usually do not "freeze over" like those of pahoehoe and therefore seldom form lava tubes. Close to the vent the surface of the aa stream maybe smooth orange-hot lava that quickly becomes covered with a lead-gray glassy skin. As the crust is disrupted by movement of the flow beneath it the characteristic spiny surface begins to appear. When lava flows reach a shore line and encounter the ocean, littoral (coastal) explosions can occur. A lava flow within a body of water formspillow lava. Each pillow is enclosed in a thin skin of glass. The pillows accumulate by settling one on top of another while they are stillsufficiently plastic to mold themselves to the underlying surface. Evidence of rapid chilling and close association with water deposited sediments indicates clearly that pillow lavas were formed either beneath water or by extrusion over very wet swampy surfaces. The Islands of Hawaii provide an excellent location for the study of the many and varied forms of lava.
        purpose:  Make available Damage Photos for research and education
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
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                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
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            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/33/33_664.jpg
            fileDescription:  View of curtains of fire, main vents, and rampart built by spatter at 2,800 m elevation on Mauna Loa, March 26, 1984. This discontinuous row of lava fountains 15-30 m high occurs along a rift. The eruption which began on March 25 fed several lava flows, one of which threatened the City of Hilo. However, the activity stopped in early April and the flows stopped about 6.4 km short of the outskirts of the city.
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Eruption Dynamics
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Lava
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Magma
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Pyroclastics
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Volcanic Ash/Dust
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            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Volcanoes > Volcanoes
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            keyword:  North and Central America > United States > Hawaii
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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                    description:  Publication Date
                    beginPosition:  1959-12-00
                    endPosition:  1990-02-00
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                        voice:  (303) 497-6826
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
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                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ngdc.info@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
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                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipping outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm slides; Hawaii Volcanism: Lava Forms Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01226-SLI-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
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                fees:  Free download
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=33&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  None
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                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipping outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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