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Crater Peak (Mt. Spurr), Alaska: Eruptions of 1992
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    language:  eng; USA
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    contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        individualName:  Heather McCullough
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                voice:  (303) 497-3707
                facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
        role:  (CI_RoleCode)http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode
    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Crater Peak (Mt. Spurr), Alaska: Eruptions of 1992
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
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                code:  Document
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
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                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            presentationForm:
        abstract:  Alaska has a number of active and potentially active volcanoes. More than one-half of the population of Alaska lives within 300 km of an active volcano. In the last 100 years there have been two eruptions at Mr. Spurr, three at Redoubt Volcano, and four eruptions at the Augustine Volcano. The 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano resulted in 160 million dollars of damageand loss. This set follows the story of Crater Peak activity from June through October, 1992, and discusses precursors, the eruptions, and effects on the environment. Mt. Spurr, located 124 km due west of Anchorage, Alaska, is an ice-covered, silicic-andesite dome complex that has not erupted in historic times. Crater Peak is a satellite vent perched on the southern rim of a Mt. Spurr caldera that formed 10,000-20,000 years ago. Crater Peak, active for at least the last 5,000 years, is a basaltic-andesite stratocone with a summit crater approximately 800 m across at its rim. Prior to the 1992 eruptions, it last erupted in 1953. There were vigorous fumarole fields and a smallwarm lake in the summit crater. Increased seismicity began at Crater Peak in August of 1991. By June of 1992 scientists noted an increase in the temperature and acidity of asummit lake. A flight over the summit on June 26 revealed that the summit lake had drained away. Seismicity increased and Crater Peak erupted explosively on 0704 AST on June 27. The eruption column reached 15 km and ash fall was reported 425 km to the north. Avalanches of hot debris flowed down the south flank and mixed with snow to form debris flows (lahars) that traveled up to six km from the crater. Following the June 27 eruption the volcano's seismicity returned to pre-August 1991 levels. Almost two months later on August 18, a commercial flight over the volcano discovered an ash plume emanating from Crater Peak. Then at 1641 AST, almost without warning, Crater Peak explosively erupted, sending a plume of ash to more than 14 km in altitude. Large volcanic bombs were thrown 750 m above the vent. Lithic blocks of up to one meter diameter were thrown as far as 3.8 km southeast of Crater Peak. Pyroclastic (hot debris) flows traveled as much as three kilometers from the crater rim. The volume of the ash plume was about twice the volume produced by the June eruption. During the night of September 16-17, Crater Peak again erupted. As in the first two eruptions a 15-km tephra cloud and pyroclastic flows also accompanied this eruption. A variety of eruption products including frothy, glassy material and large brown to gray andesitic bombs were produced by all three eruptions. Fragmental debris varying in size from very fine ash to large blocks several meters across littered the slopes of the volcano. The August 18 eruption of Crater Peak produced troublesome ash falls in Anchorage, 124 km distant. Residents had to wear particle masks and take special precautions to protect car engines and electronic equipment. The International Airport at Anchorage was closed for 20 hours by the ash fall. The ash fall from the September 16-17 eruption heavily impacted the communities in the Matanuska-Susitna and Copper River basins. There have been periods of intense seismicity since the eruption in August of 1992.
        purpose:  Make available Damage Photos for research and education
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
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        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/35/35_713.jpg
            fileDescription:  Following the August eruption, the inside of Crater Peak was mantled with pryoclastic debris and coarse talus from rock avalanches from the steep crater walls. The actual orifice or vent for the eruptions is located at the back (NW) corner of the crater, here steaming profusely. Other "rootless" fumaroles emit steam through the thick blanket of debris on the crater rim and where banked against the crater walls.
            fileType:  JPEG
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Eruption Dynamics
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Lava
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Magma
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Pyroclastics
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Volcanoes > Volcanic Ash/Dust
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            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
                date:
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Volcanoes > Volcanoes
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            keyword:  WDC/MGG, BOULDER > World Data Center for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Boulder
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Data Center Keywords
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        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  North America > United States > Alaska > Kenai Peninsula > Spurr, Mount
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
                date:
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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                    title:  Container Packet ID
                    date:
                code:  gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.photos:G01143
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        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
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                westBoundLongitude:  -152.25
                eastBoundLongitude:  -149.53
                southBoundLatitude:  61.13
                northBoundLatitude:  61.3
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                  TimePeriod:
                    description:  Publication Date
                    beginPosition:  1992-06
                    endPosition:  1992-10
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    contentInfo:
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  TIFF
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                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  (303) 497-6826
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ngdc.info@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
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                fees:  $25.00
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm slides; Crater Peak (Mt. Spurr), Alaska: Eruptions of 1992 Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via:http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01228-SLI-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  None
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=35&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  None
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                fees:  $25.00 plus handling
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
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                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian