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Fire vs Water: Erosional/Depositional Geology, Hawaiian Islands
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        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
        positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
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    dateStamp:  2015-10-14
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Fire vs Water: Erosional/Depositional Geology, Hawaiian Islands
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1998
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
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                code:  Document
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                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
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                        city:  Boulder
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        abstract:  Even a casual, untrained observer will see evidence that opposing forces have formed the Hawaiian Islands. The massive and lofty volcanoes have been scoured, abraded, and lacerated by streams and the sea. On the oldestislands (in the northwest) the volcanic mountains have been eroded and deeply cut by canyons. Even farther north are coral reefs and atolls--all that remain of former islands. This slide set examines volcanic features and their erosion by waves, glaciers, streams, and storms. The images include dramatic examples of Hawaii's unique geology. The Erosional and Depositional Geology of the Hawaiian Islands. Even a casual, untrained observer will see evidence that opposing forces have formed the Hawaiian Islands. The massive and lofty volcanoes have been scoured, abraded, and lacerated by streams and the sea. The early Hawaiians themselves recognized this conflict between the volcanoes that built the islands and the forces that eroded them. The people created stories about two goddess sisters: Pele and Na Maka O Kaha'i. Pele, the goddess of fire was depicted as always building a new home for herself ( volcano). Na Kaka O Kaha'i, the evil goddess of the sea, continually hunted out Pele and attempted to destroy her home. This is an apt description of the geology of the islands. On the oldest islands (in the northwest), the volcanic mountains have been eroded and deeply cut by canyons. Even further north are coral reefs and atolls all that remain of former islands. The older islands show evidence of a resurgence of volcanism. The myths attribute this to Pele's attempt to fight back against the force of water that sought to destroy her homes. Scientists believe that continents and ocean basins drift, or move slowly, relative to eachother and to Earth's hot interior. The Pacific Ocean floor is drifting to the northwest over a hot spot the source of the molten material which is building the volcanic islands. While olderislands erode, new islands form to the southeast as new sections of the ocean floor move over thehot spot. On these islands, the geological features are on a grand scale. On the Big IslandHawaii), Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea rise from the ocean depths of 5,486 m (18,000 ft) to a maximum elevation above sea level of nearly 4,267 m (14,000 ft). They are among the tallest mountain masses on Earth. The islands are characterized by cliffs, or palis, some of which may have originated as the subaerial scars above giant submarine landslides. These cliffs are striking and steep, and deeply grooved as though Na MaKa O Kaha'i herself had attempted to draw more land into the sea with her long fingernails. As a new Hawaiian volcano was born on the ocean floor, pillow lava and a rubble of fragmented lava formed the submarine portion of the future island. When the volcano finally emerged above the sea, the submarine rubble and debris were covered by solid layers of lava flows. The weight of these layers pressed on the underlying weak debris. As the huge shield volcano settled under its own weight, cracks opened that permitted magma to intrude laterally and reach the surface on the flanks of the shield. Some of the cracks became planes of weakness in the underlying rubble, allowing the volcanic slopes to slide massively down and out onto the deep floor. On the emergent part of the volcano, lava flows continued to build the island, while the forces of erosion, waves, wind, rain, freshwater streams, landslides, and even glaciers carved the land and delivered sediment to the sea. Some of the larger valleys and canyons have eroded where streams took advantage of weak zones in faulted bedrock. Hawaii's beaches have many colors of sand. White sand, the most abundant, is of marine origin, derived from skeletal fragments of shallow-water marine organisms. Dark-gray detrital sand is eroded basalt, deposited mainly by streams, but also by waves. Tan sand is a mixture of the white and gray. Green sand is created as waves attack olivine-bearing cinder and tuff. Black sand commonly forms when hot lava enters the cooler ocean, fragments, and is deposited on the beach. All these features combine to give the islands of Hawaii a unique and incomparable beauty.
        purpose:  Make available Damage Photos for research and education
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
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                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
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            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/38/38_764.jpg
            fileDescription:  These steep cliffs are nearly 823 m (2,700 ft) high. A huge landslide may have taken place in this area several million years ago. Rubble from a giant slide is visible for miles on the ocean floor, northwest of Kauai. After the slide, the landslide scar was cut by stream erosion, and submerged in submarine canyons. The cliffs seen here are now well inland from the original, giant slide. Rock falls, chemical weathering, and erosion from small streams continue to sculpt this dramatic area.
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Land Surface > Erosion/Sedimentation > Erosion
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Erosion
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Volcanism
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Solid Earth > Volcanoes
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Solid Earth > Volcanoes > Lava
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                    date:  1995-04-24
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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                    description:  Publication Date
                    timePosition:  1998-02-01
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    contentInfo:
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                        city:  Boulder
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                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ngdc.info@noaa.gov
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                fees:  $25.00 plus handling and shipping outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm slides: Fire vs. Water: The Erosional & Depositional Geology of Hawaiian Islands Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01274-SLI-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
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                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=38&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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                other:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
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                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency: (unknown)
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        maintenanceNote:  This record was automatically modified on 2015-10-14 to include references to NCEI where applicable.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Anna Milan
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Anna.Milan@noaa.gov
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            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact