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Papua New Guinea Tsunami, July 17, 1998

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                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
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                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
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    dateStamp:  2011-04-06
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Papua New Guinea Tsunami, July 17, 1998
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1999
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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        abstract:  On the evening of Friday July 17, 1998, a magnitude Ms 7.1 earthquake occurred near the northwest coast Papua New Guinea 850 km (510 miles ) northwest of Port Moresby, the capitol of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The earthquake, which occurred at 6:49 PM local time, was followed by a series of three catastrophic tsunami waves that devastated the villages of Sissano, Warupu, Arop and Malol on the north coast of PNG killing at least 2,182, injuring 1,000, and displacing more than 10,000. The villages of Arop and Warupu were entirely destroyed. Aitape and Malol were demolished or damaged. Survivorswere reportedly lifted off their feet, tossed around, and stripped of their clothes. Some victims were found impaled on mangrove stumps, andothers received deep cuts from metal debris. Several lessons were immediately obvious from this tsunami: Ground shaking and loud sounds from the sea provided tsunami warnings that were largely unheeded by area inhabitants unfamiliar with tsunamis. Spits between lagoon areas and the sea are particularly prone to damage from tsunamis and should be avoided in rebuilding after the tsunamis. Trees and mangroves apparently exacerbated rather than reduced the impact of the waves with the exception of coconut palms. Tsunami energy is not dissipated by lagoons. The most likely cause of the tsunami is a sediment slump 25 km offshore caused by the earthquake. This event is the largest known tsunami ever to have occurred in the area although the tsunami/earthquake history dates only from 1900.
        purpose:  To provide long-term scientific data stewardship for the Nation's geophysical data, ensuring quality, integrity, and accessibility.
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
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                    country:  USA
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            fileName: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/42/42_846.jpg
            fileDescription:  The sand spit where the Arop village stood. Waves flattened the house foundation posts and younger coconut palms. A pool of water near the lagoon marks a depression where cavitation effects of the waves have removed houses and soil.
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        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > Coastal Processes > Erosion
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > Ocean Waves > Tsunamis
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Data Center Keywords
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            keyword:  Papua New Guinea
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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                    description:  Publication Date
                    beginPosition:  1998-07-17
                    endPosition:  1998-07-17
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                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=42&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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                fees:  $195.00/145.00 plus handling
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered from the online store via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01268-CDR-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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                description:  Slide set is out of print and is no longer available as a slide set. Updated Distribution to show this.
                dateTime:
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                    individualName:  Heather McCullough
                    organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                            administrativeArea:  CO
                            postalCode:  80305-3328
                            country:  USA
                            electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                        hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                        contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Heather McCullough
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
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                    voice:  (303) 497-3707
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC3 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Heather.McCullough@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 5:00 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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