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2009 USGS/NPS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Cape Hatteras National Seashore - Post-Nor'easter Ida

spatialRepresentationInfo
referenceSystemInfo
referenceSystemInfo
identificationInfo
distributionInfo
dataQualityInfo
metadataMaintenance

 (MI_Metadata)
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.csc.maps:2009_USGS_NC_m1071
    language:  eng; USA
    characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  Mike Sutherland(author) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        organisationName:
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
    dateStamp:  2013-06-04
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    spatialRepresentationInfo:  (MD_VectorSpatialRepresentation)
        geometricObjects:  (MD_GeometricObjects)
            geometricObjectType:  (MD_GeometricObjectTypeCode) point
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    referenceSystemInfo:  (MD_ReferenceSystem)
        referenceSystemIdentifier:  (RS_Identifier)
            authority:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  North American Datum 1983
                alternateTitle:  NAD83
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2007-01-19
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) revision
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: http://www.epsg-registry.org/export.htm?gml=urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4269
                            name:  NAD83
                            description:  Link to Geographic Markup Language (GML) description of reference system.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) resourceProvider
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  European Petroleum Survey Group
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: http://www.epsg-registry.org/
                            name:  European Petroleum Survey Group Geodetic Parameter Registry
                            description:  Registry that accesses the EPSG Geodetic Parameter Dataset, which is a structured dataset of Coordinate Reference Systems and Coordinate Transformations.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) search
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            code:  urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4269
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    referenceSystemInfo:  (MD_ReferenceSystem)
        referenceSystemIdentifier:  (RS_Identifier)
            code:  Ellipsoid in Meters
            codeSpace:  Local Vertical Reference
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  2009 USGS/NPS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Cape Hatteras National Seashore - Post-Nor'easter Ida
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  2011-01-01
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            citedResponsibleParty:  NOAA CSC (originator)
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOI/USGS > United States Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOI/NPS > National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            citedResponsibleParty:  NOAA CSC (publisher) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) imageDigital
        abstract:  This is a bare-earth data lidar data set that was collected on November 27, 29 and December 1, 2009 along the shoreline of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore in Dare and Hyde Counties in North Carolina, after Nor'easter Ida. Binary point-cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS). Elevation measurements were collected over the area using the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), a pulsed laser ranging system mounted onboard an aircraft to measure ground elevation, vegetation canopy, and coastal topography. The system uses high-frequency laser beams directed at the Earth's surface through an opening in the bottom of the aircraft's fuselage. The laser system records the time difference between emission of the laser beam and the reception of the reflected laser signal in the aircraft. The plane travels over the target area at approximately 50 meters per second at an elevation of approximately 300 meters, resulting in a laser swath of approximately 240 meters with an average point spacing of 2-3 meters. The EAARL, developed originally by NASA at Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, measures ground elevation with a vertical resolution of 15 centimeters. A sampling rate of 3 kilohertz or higher, results in an extremely dense spatial elevation dataset. Over 100 kilometers of coastline can be easily surveyed within a 3- to 4-hour mission. When subsequent elevation maps for an area are analyzed, they provide a useful tool to make management decisions regarding land development.
        purpose:  The purpose of this project was to produce highly detailed and accurate digital elevation maps of a portion of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore in Dare and Hyde Counties in North Carolina, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), for use as a management tool and to make these data available to natural-resource managers and research scientists.
        credit:  The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service request to be acknowledged as originators of this data in future products or derivative research. Acknowledgment of the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, as a data source would be appreciated in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected. Sharing of new data layers developed directly from these data would also be appreciated by the U.S. Geological Survey staff. Users should be aware that comparisons with other datasets for the same area from other time periods may be inaccurate due to inconsistencies resulting from changes in photointerpretation, mapping conventions, and digital processes over time. These data are not legal documents and are not to be used as such.
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Amar Nayegandhi
            organisationName:  Jacobs Technology, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
            positionName:  Remote Sensing Specialist/Project Manager
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  727 803-8747 (x3026)
                    facsimile:  727 803-2031
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  600 4th Street South
                    city:  St. Petersburg
                    administrativeArea:  FL
                    postalCode:  33701
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  anayegandhi@usgs.gov
                hoursOfService:  M-F, 9:00-5:00 EST
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
        resourceMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
            maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) notPlanned
        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName:  ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/nc/2009_USGS_NPS_Cape_Hatteras_National_Seashore_Lidar.kmz
            fileDescription:  This kmz file shows the extent of coverage for the 2009 USGS/NPS Cape Hatteras National Seashore Post-Nor'Easter Ida lidar data set.
            fileType:  kmz
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Bathymetry/Topography
            keyword:  Airborne Lidar Processing System
            keyword:  ALPS
            keyword:  Digital Elevation Model
            keyword:  DEM
            keyword:  EAARL
            keyword:  Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar
            keyword:  laser altimetry
            keyword:  lidar
            keyword:  remote sensing
            keyword:  topography
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date:
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  US
            keyword:  North Carolina
            keyword:  Cape Hatteras National Seashore
            keyword:  Dare County
            keyword:  Hyde County
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date:
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  2009
            keyword:  Post-Nor'Ida
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) temporal
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date:
        resourceConstraints:  Lidar Use Limitation
        resourceConstraints:  NOAA Legal Statement
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Small footprint, waveform-resolving lidar estimation of submerged and sub-canopy topography in coastal environments
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2009-01-01
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Nayegandhi, A., Brock, J.C., and Wright, C.W.
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
                series:  (CI_Series)
                    name:  International Journal of Remote Sensing
                    issueIdentification:  30(4), p. 861-878
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
        spatialRepresentationType:  (MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode) vector
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) elevation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -76.024620
                eastBoundLongitude:  -75.455316
                southBoundLatitude:  35.064837
                northBoundLatitude:  35.963517
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    timePosition:  2009-11-27
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    timePosition:  2009-11-29
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    timePosition:  2009-12-01
        supplementalInformation:  Raw lidar data are not in a format that is generally usable by resource managers and scientists for scientific analysis. Converting dense lidar elevation data into a readily usable format without loss of essential information requires specialized processing. The U.S. Geological Survey's Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) has developed custom software to convert raw lidar data into a GIS-compatible map product to be provided to GIS specialists, managers, and scientists. The primary tool used in the conversion process is Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a multi-tiered processing system developed by a USGS-NASA collaborative project. Specialized processing algorithms are used to convert raw waveform lidar data acquired by the EAARL to georeferenced spot (x,y,z) returns for "first surface" and "bare earth" topography. The terms first surface and bare earth refer to the digital elevation data of the terrain, but while first-surface data includes vegetation, buildings, and other man-made structures, bare-earth data does not. The zero crossing of the second derivative (that is, detection of local maxima) is used to detect the first return, resulting in "first surface" topography, while the trailing edge algorithm (that is, the algorithm searches for the location prior to the last return where direction changes along the trailing edge) is used to detect the range to the last return or "bare earth" (the first and last returns being the first and last significant measurable portion of the return pulse). Statistical filtering, known as the Random Consensus Filter (RCF), is used to remove false bottom returns and other outliers from the EAARL topography data. The filter uses a grid of non-overlapping square cells (buffer) of user-defined size overlaid onto the original point cloud. The user also defines the vertical tolerance (vertical width) based on the topographic complexity and point sampling density of the data. The maximum allowable elevation range within a cell is established by this vertical tolerance. An iterative process searches for the maximum concentration of points within the vertical tolerance, and removes those points outside of the tolerance (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). The input parameters for the random consensus filter (RCF) for these data were: grid cell size (buffer) = 6 meters x 6 meters; vertical tolerance (vertical width) = 500 centimeters. These data are then converted to the North American Datum of 1983 and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (using the GEOID09 model). The development of custom software for creating these data products has been supported by the U.S. Geological Survey CMG Program's Decision Support for Coastal Science and Management project. Processed data products are used by the U.S. Geological Survey CMG Program's National Assessments of Coastal Change Hazards project to quantify the vulnerability of shorelines to coastal change hazards such as severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat.
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  LAZ
            version:
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  NOAA CSC(distributor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                orderingInstructions:  The National Geophysical Data Center serves as the archive for this LIDAR data. NGDC should only be contacted for this data if it cannot be obtained from NOAA Coastal Services Center.
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  Mike Sutherland
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                orderingInstructions:  The National Geophysical Data Center serves as the archive for this LIDAR dataset. NGDC should only be contacted for the data if it cannot be obtained from NOAA Coastal Services Center.
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Raw elevation measurements have been determined to be within 1 meter in horizontal accuracy.
            result:
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Typical vertical elevation accuracies for these data are consistent with the point elevation data, +/-15 centimeters. However, a ground-control survey is not conducted simultaneously with every lidar survey. Vertical accuracies may vary based on the type of terrain and the accuracy of the GPS and aircraft-attitude measurements.
            result:
        report:  (DQ_CompletenessCommission)
            evaluationMethodDescription:  These point-cloud data may appear sparse or nonexistent, which is a result of removal from manual editing or lack of survey coverage.
            result:
        report:  (DQ_ConceptualConsistency)
            measureDescription:  The original files as received by NOAA CSC, contained data located in a 10-kilometer by 10-kilometer tile where the upper-left bound can be assessed quickly through the filename. The first 3 numbers in the filename represent the left-most UTM easting coordinate (e###000) in meters, the next 4 numbers represent the top-most UTM northing coordinate (n####000) in meters, and the last 2 numbers (##) represent the UTM zone in which the tile is located (for example, fs_e123_n4567_18).
            result:
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The data were collected using a Pilatus PC-6 aircraft. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) laser scanner collects the data using a green-wavelength (532-nanometer) raster scanning laser, while a digital camera acquires a visual record of the flight. The data are stored on hard drives and archived at the U.S. Geological Survey office in St. Petersburg, Florida. The navigational data are processed and then, along with the raw data, are downloaded into ALPS, or the Airborne Lidar Processing System (20091231 - 20101019). Data are converted from units of time to x,y,z points for elevation and formatted into .las and .xyz files. The derived surface data can then also be converted into raster data (GeoTIFFs). This process took place 20091127 through 20101102.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2010-11-02T00:00:00
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Jamie M. Bonisteel-Cormier
                    organisationName:  Jacobs Technology, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
                    positionName:  Lidar Analyst
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                            voice:  727 803-8747 (x3124)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            deliveryPoint:  600 4th Street South
                            city:  St. Petersburg
                            administrativeArea:  FL
                            postalCode:  33701
                            country:  USA
                            electronicMailAddress:  jcormier@usgs.gov
                        hoursOfService:  M-F, 8:00-4:00 EST
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Metadata imported into ArcCatalog from XML file.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2010-12-23T00:00:00
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Xan Fredericks
                    organisationName:  Jacobs Technology, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
                    positionName:  GIS Analyst/Metadata Specialist
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                            voice:  727 803-8747 (x3086)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            deliveryPoint:  600 4th Street South
                            city:  St. Petersburg
                            administrativeArea:  FL
                            postalCode:  33701
                            country:  USA
                            electronicMailAddress:  afredericks@usgs.gov
                        hoursOfService:  M-F, 8:00-4:00 EST
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) received files in unclassified LAS format. The files contained LiDAR intensity and elevation measurements. CSC performed the following processing on the data to make it available within Digital Coast: 1. The unclassified data were processed to provide a bare earth surface. 2. The data were converted from UTM, Zone 18 coordinates to geographic coordinates. 3. The data were converted from NAVD88 heights to ellipsoid heights using Geoid09. 4. The LAS header fields were sorted by latitude and updated.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2011-09-01T00:00:00
                processor:  NOAA CSC (processor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) received lidar data files via ftp transfer from the NOAA Coastal Services Center. The data are currently being served via NOAA CSC Digital Coast at http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/. The data can be used to re-populate the system. The data are archived in LAS or LAZ format. The LAS format is an industry standard for LiDAR data developed by the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS); LAZ is a loseless compressed version of LAS developed by Martin Isenburg (http://www.laszip.org/). The data are exclusively in geographic coordinates (either NAD83 or ITRF94). The data are referenced vertically to the ellipsoid (either GRS80 or ITRF94), allowing for the ability to apply the most up to date geoid model when transforming to orthometric heights.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2011-09-22T00:00:00
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Pamela Grothe
                    organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) annually
        dateOfNextUpdate:  2014-06-04
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata standard (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using the 2013-01-04 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 for LiDAR transform.
        maintenanceNote:  Translated from FGDC 2013-06-04T13:00:17.752-06:00
        maintenanceNote:  Last Metadata Review Date: 2011-11-19