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2010 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland District Columbia River Lidar
 (MI_Metadata)
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.csc.maps:2010_OR_USACE_Columbia_River_m1122
    language:  eng; USA
    characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  Mike Sutherland(author) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        organisationName: (template)
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
    dateStamp:  2013-01-22
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    spatialRepresentationInfo:  (MD_VectorSpatialRepresentation)
        geometricObjects:  (MD_GeometricObjects)
            geometricObjectType:  (MD_GeometricObjectTypeCode) point
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    referenceSystemInfo:  NAD83
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    referenceSystemInfo:  Ellipsoid
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  2010 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland District Columbia River Lidar
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  2012-03-01
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            citedResponsibleParty:  NOAA CSC (originator)
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland District
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            citedResponsibleParty:  NOAA CSC (publisher) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName: (template)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) imageDigital
        abstract:  The Columbia River Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey project was a collaborative effort to develop detailed high density LiDAR terrain data for the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The LiDAR will be used to support hydraulic modeling work associated with proposed 2014 Columbia River treaty negotiations. The dataset encompasses approximately 2836 square miles of territory in portions of Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana within the Columbia River drainage. This survey was under the jurisdiction of three Corps districts: Portland (CENWP), Seattle (CENWS), and Walla Walla (CENWW). CENWP was the project lead and primary contracting organization. Bare earth point data are classified as either ground (2), model key point (8) or water (9) and represent the earth's surface with all vegetation and human-made structures removed. Model key points were generated to represent the bare earth surface within a 0.07 m tolerance. Ground points (class 2) are the remaining ground points not classed as model key. Both ground and model key classes are needed for display of all bare earth points. Water classification was used for those bare earth/ground classified points that fell inside a water boundary as determined using softcopy photogrammetry with stereograms generated from LiDAR intensities. All remaining points received the default classification (1). In some areas of heavy vegetation or forest cover, there may be relatively few ground points in the LiDAR data. The RMSE of the data for open, hard-packed surfaces is 0.046 meters as assessed from 40,266 ground survey (real time kinematic) points taken on hard-packed road surfaces. This value is representative of anticipated accuracies in open, evenly sloped or flat terrain where maximum point densities were achieved. The project was completed for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to support hydraulic modeling related to the ACOE Columbia River Treaty project. Data acquisition, bare earth processing, and development of final tiled LiDAR deliverables and DEM's was performed by Watershed Sciences, Inc. Overall project management, photogrammetric quality control review using LiDAR stereograms, water delineation and breakline development was performed by David C. Smith & Associates, Inc. Professional Surveyor oversight of ground control data, ground control data processing and ground control publication was performed by David Evans and Associates, Inc. Final quality control review in ArcGIS of all final deliverables, including preparation of point density rasters and reach based geo-databases incorporating all deliverables, was performed by CC Patterson and Associates. NOTE ON DATUM ISSUES: All ground control and subsequent LiDAR data deliverables were developed and delivered at NAD '83 CORS 96 horizontal and NAVD '88 Geoid '09 vertical datums as processed in OPUS-DB. Due to limitations in the transformations supported by ESRI, NAD '83 and NAVD '88 datums were temporarily assigned to the ESRI deliverables and ESRI .prj file even though the actual coordinate values in the data files are at the original NAD '83 CORS 96 and NAVD '88 Geoid '09 datums. In many instances, a temporary assignment of NAD '83 HARN or HPGN may better approximate local conditions. Plain NAD '83 was used for the primary deliverable in order to avoid any implication of higher precision; however, the user may want to evaluate other approximations for specific applications. At such time as ESRI includes support for NAD '83 CORS '96, the temporary NAD '83 assignment in the .prj file should be replaced with NAD '83 CORS '96 without further reprojection. The NOAA Coastal Services Center has converted the data to ellipsoid heights (using Geoid09) and NAD 83 geographic coordinates for data storage and Digital Coast provisioning purposes.
        purpose:  Provide high resolution terrain elevation and land cover elevation data for the purpose of supporting hydraulic modeling related to the Columbia River Treaty Project.
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Jacob MacDonald
            organisationName:  US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  503-808-4844
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  P.O. Box 2946
                    city:  Portland
                    administrativeArea:  OR
                    postalCode:  97208
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  jacob.macdonald@usace.army.mil
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
        resourceMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
            maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) notPlanned
        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName:  ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/or/usace_columbia_river/USACE_2010_Columbia_River_Lidar.kmz
            fileDescription:  This kmz file shows the extent of coverage for the 2010 USACE Columbia River lidar data set.
            fileType:  kmz
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Bathymetry/Topography
            keyword:  LiDAR
            keyword:  Light Detection and Ranging
            keyword:  DEM
            keyword:  digital terrain model
            keyword:  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
            keyword:  elevation data
            keyword:  topography
            keyword:  bare earth
            keyword:  high-resolution
            keyword:  bare ground
            keyword:  DTM
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  United States
            keyword:  Pacific Northwest
            keyword:  Idaho
            keyword:  Montana
            keyword:  Oregon
            keyword:  Washington
            keyword:  Columbia River
            keyword:  UTM zones 10N and 11N
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        resourceConstraints:  Lidar Use Limitation
        resourceConstraints:  NOAA Legal Statement
        spatialRepresentationType:  (MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode) vector
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) elevation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -124.125759
                eastBoundLongitude:  -113.941400
                southBoundLatitude:  44.775230
                northBoundLatitude:  49.004158
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  2009-11-16
                    endPosition:  2010-07-02
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  LAZ
            version: (unknown)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  NOAA CSC(distributor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName: (template)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                orderingInstructions:  The National Geophysical Data Center serves as the archive for this LIDAR data. NGDC should only be contacted for this data if it cannot be obtained from NOAA Coastal Services Center.
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  Mike Sutherland
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                orderingInstructions:  The National Geophysical Data Center serves as the archive for this LIDAR dataset. NGDC should only be contacted for the data if it cannot be obtained from NOAA Coastal Services Center.
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Processes were designed to achieve a horizontal accuracy for unobscured raw point cloud data of less than 30 cm. See LiDAR data report at: ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/or/usace_columbia_river/ColumbiaRiverLiDARProject_FinalSummaryReport.doc
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Processes were designed to meet a scope of work vertical accuracy requirement of 13 cm Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the final integrated ground model. Vegetated areas could not be assessed using softcopy photogrammetry methods and may not meet this accuracy in all cases. Open, hard pavement areas significantly exceed this requirement. The RMSE of the data for open, hard-packed surfaces is 0.046 meters as assessed from 40,266 ground survey (real time kinematic) points taken on hard-packed road surfaces. See LiDAR data report at: ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/or/usace_columbia_river/ColumbiaRiverLiDARProject_FinalSummaryReport.doc
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy
            measureDescription:  The RMSE of the data for open, hard-packed surfaces is 0.046 meters as assessed from 40,266 ground survey (real time kinematic) points taken on hard-packed road surfaces. This value is representative of anticipated accuracies in open, evenly sloped or flat terrain where maximum point densities were achieved. To assess accuracies in other terrain conditions, a detailed photogrammetric review using LiDAR stereograms was conducted. The review was focused on significant and readily identifiable features of 0.5 m height or larger. Areas where the initial ground model point densities did not appear to support the 13 cm RMSE target accuracy were identified and corrected with supplemental breaklines to create an integrated terrain model designed to meet accuracy requirements.
            result:  (DQ_QuantitativeResult)
                valueUnit:
                  BaseUnit:
                    identifier:  meters
                    unitsSystem:
                value:
                  Record:  0.046
        report:  (DQ_CompletenessCommission)
            evaluationMethodDescription:  LiDAR data has been collected and processed for all areas within the project study area.
            result: (unknown)
        report:  (DQ_ConceptualConsistency)
            measureDescription:  LiDAR flight lines have been examined to ensure that there was at least 60% sidelap; there are no gaps between flightlines, and overlapping flightlines have consistent elevation values. Professional surveyor oversight was implemented for the base station control survey. All control point data was reviewed by a professional surveyor, processed for and NGS OPUS DB solution and for inclusion in the database. 10% of the field points were verified by an independent GPS survey quality control check. All new monuments were submitted for publication on the OPUS online datasheet website. Ground point classifications were reviewed in detail both by visual review during the initial LiDAR processing and again during a photogrammetric review against stereograms generated from first return LiDAR intensities. Shaded relief images have been visually inspected for data errors such as pits, border artifacts, gaps, and shifting. The data was examined at a 1:2000 scale. An overall review including mosaicing all imagery and developing a geodatabase of all .las files, raster and vector deliverables was performed as a final quality control check.
            result: (unknown)
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Acquisition The LiDAR data was collected between November 16th, 2009 and July 2, 2010. The survey used both the Leica ALS50 Phase II and ALS 60 laser systems mounted in a Cessna Caravan 208. Near nadir scan angles were used to increase penetration of vegetation to ground surfaces. Ground level GPS and aircraft IMU were collected during the flight.
                dateTime: (unknown)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Point Cloud Processing 1. Flight lines and data were reviewed to ensure complete coverage of the study area and positional accuracy of the laser points. 2. Laser point return coordinates were computed using ALS Post Processor software, IPAS Pro GPS/INS software, and Waypoint GPS, based on independent data from the LiDAR system, IMU, and aircraft. 3. The raw LiDAR file was assembled into flight lines per return with each point having an associated x, y, and z coordinate. 4. Visual inspection of swath to swath laser point consistencies within the study area were used to perform manual refinements of system alignment. 5. Custom algorithms were designed to evaluate points between adjacent flight lines. Automated system alignment was computed based upon randomly selected swath to swath accuracy measurements that consider elevation, slope, and intensities. Specifically, refinement in the combination of system pitch, roll and yaw offset parameters optimize internal consistency. 6. Noise (e.g., pits and birds) was filtered using ALS postprocessing software, based on known elevation ranges and included the removal of any cycle slips. 7. Using TerraScan and Microstation, ground classifications utilized custom settings appropriate to the study area. 8. The corrected and filtered return points were compared to the RTK ground survey points collected to verify the vertical and horizontal accuracies. 9. Points were output as laser points.
                dateTime: (unknown)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Water Delineation and Breakline Integration 1) Photogrammetric review and evaluation of ground class model key points was performed using stereograms generated from LiDAR first return intensities using softcopy photogrammetry equipment. 2) Stereograms were generated at a 0.3 meter pixel resolution to support softcopy photogrammetry measurements. Based on an initial test of approximately 30 test points on hard flat surfaces, the softcopy photogrammetry measurements were found to be within a 5 cm to 7 cm RMSE of the source LiDAR values. Values were very evenly distributed as plus and minus (average error 1 cm) resulting in digitized breaklines being a consistent representation of the LiDAR surface well within project accuracy requirements. 3) 3D breaklines were digitized to delineate all readily identifiable water bodies down to 2 meters in width for the purpose of a generally flattened cartographic appearance as well as delineating water polygons for points to reclassify as water in the ground surface model. Water surfaces were not artificially flattened; breaklines represent the best visual interpretation of the break between land and water points. Breaklines represent the water level at the time of flight. Hard breaks occur where the water level is significantly different between different flight days. 4) Additional supplemental breaklines were digitized for cliffs, hard breaks or other readily identifiable terrain features when not represented to within 0.5 m or less by the initial ground model classification. 5) Concurrent photogrammetric review was performed to identify any remaining ground classification edits required.
                dateTime: (unknown)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Bare earth raster 1M ground surface rasters in ESRI grid format were developed from triangulated irregular networks (TINs) of the ground points and integrated breaklines. Ground class points within the water polygons were reclassified as water points and omitted from the ground model. Bare earth raster water elevations were interpolated from 3D water boundary breaklines.
                dateTime: (unknown)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Geodatabase preparation and final quality control 1) As a final quality control step, all source .las points, breaklines, water delineation polygons, bare earth 1M DEM rasters, highest hit 1M DEM rasters and intensity images were imported into and ArcGIS geodatabase, tiled by USACE modeling reach. 2) Mosaics were created from bare earth and highest hit DEMs and reviewed for continuity and completeness. 3) Hillshades were generated and used for an overall, final visual review of the bare earth model.
                dateTime: (unknown)
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  Jacob MacDonald
                    organisationName:  US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                            voice:  503-808-4844
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            deliveryPoint:  P.O. Box 2946
                            city:  Portland
                            administrativeArea:  OR
                            postalCode:  97208
                            country:  USA
                            electronicMailAddress:  jacob.macdonald@usace.army.mil
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) received the files in las format. The files contained LiDAR elevation and intensity measurements. The data were in UTM (Zones 10 and 11) coordinates and NAVD88 (Geoid 09) heights in meters. CSC performed the following processing for data storage and Digital Coast provisioning purposes: 1. The data were converted from UTM Zones 10 and 11 coordinates to geographic coordinates. 2. The data were converted from NAVD88 (orthometric) heights to GRS80 (ellipsoid) heights using Geoid 09. 3. Outliers were filtered. 4. The data were converted to LAZ format.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2012-03-01T00:00:00
                processor:  NOAA CSC (processor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (template)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) received lidar data files via ftp transfer from the NOAA Coastal Services Center. The data are currently being served via NOAA CSC Digital Coast at http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/. The data can be used to re-populate the system. The data are archived in LAS or LAZ format. The LAS format is an industry standard for LiDAR data developed by the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS); LAZ is a loseless compressed version of LAS developed by Martin Isenburg (http://www.laszip.org/). The data are exclusively in geographic coordinates (either NAD83 or ITRF94). The data are referenced vertically to the ellipsoid (either GRS80 or ITRF94), allowing for the ability to apply the most up to date geoid model when transforming to orthometric heights.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2013-01-22T00:00:00
                processor:  Mike Sutherland (processor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (template)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) annually
        dateOfNextUpdate:  2014-01-22
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata standard (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using the 2013-01-04 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 for LiDAR transform.
        maintenanceNote:  Translated from FGDC 2013-01-22T13:19:14.587-07:00