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Metadata Identifier: gov.noaa.csc.maps:2010_usgs_SanFranBay_m1406

Aggregation Info | Bands | Citations | Constraints | Coverage Descriptions | Dimensions | Extents | Formats | Geographic Bounding Box
Georectified Information | Georeferenceable Information | Identifiers | Instruments | Mediums | OnlineResources | Operations
Platforms | Process Steps | Range Elements | Reference Systems | Responsible Parties | Series | Sources | Spatial Grids | Temporal Extents

MD_DataIdentification

Count Component Title Abstract
1 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: San Francisco Bay, California The primary purpose of this project was to develop a consistent and accurate surface elevation dataset derived from high-accuracy Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology for the USGS San Francisco Coastal LiDAR project area. The LiDAR data were processed to a bare-earth digital terrain model (DTM). Detailed breaklines and bare-earth DEMs were produced for the project area. Data was formatted according to tiles with each tile covering an area of 1500 m by 1500 m. A total of 712 tiles were produced for the project encompassing an area of approximately 610 sq. miles. This metadata relates to LAS that were classified in the following classes: Class 1 = Unclassified. This class includes vegetation, buildings, noise etc. Class 2 = Ground Class 7= Noise Class 9 = Water Class 10= Ignored Ground (due to proximity to breakline)
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SV_Identification

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CI_Citation

Count Component Title Date Citation Identifier
1 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: San Francisco Bay, California
  • 2011-03-01
2 None
    1 North American Datum 1983
    • 2007-01-19
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    CI_Series

    none found
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    CI_ResponsibleParty

    Count Component Individual Organization Position Email Role Linkage
    1 resourceProvider http://www.epsg-registry.org/export.htm?gml=urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4269
    1 NOAA CSC (originator) DOC/NOAA/NOS/CSC > Coastal Services Center, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce csc.info@noaa.gov originator
    1 NOAA CSC (publisher) DOC/NOAA/NOS/CSC > Coastal Services Center, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce csc.info@noaa.gov publisher
    1 NOAA CSC(distributor) DOC/NOAA/NOS/CSC > Coastal Services Center, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce csc.info@noaa.gov distributor
    1 NOAA CSC (processor) DOC/NOAA/NOS/CSC > Coastal Services Center, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce csc.info@noaa.gov processor
    1 EPSG Registry European Petroleum Survey Group publisher http://www.epsg-registry.org/
    1 Mike Sutherland(author) Mike Sutherland DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce mike.sutherland@noaa.gov author
    1 Mike Sutherland Mike Sutherland DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce mike.sutherland@noaa.gov distributor
    1 Mike Sutherland (processor) Mike Sutherland DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce mike.sutherland@noaa.gov processor
    7 Phyllis Cross Terrapoint USA Director, Client Program Management Phyllis.Cross@terrapoint.com processor
    1 Robert Kelly USGS USGS NGTOC ckelly@usgs.gov pointOfContact
    1 Tim Blak Dewberry - Geospatial Services Group Project Manager tblak@dewberry.com processor
    1 U.S. Geological Survey originator
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    CI_OnlineResource

    Count Component Linkage Name Description Function
    1 http://www.epsg-registry.org/ European Petroleum Survey Group Geodetic Parameter Registry Registry that accesses the EPSG Geodetic Parameter Dataset, which is a structured dataset of Coordinate Reference Systems and Coordinate Transformations. search
    1 http://www.epsg-registry.org/export.htm?gml=urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4269 NAD83 Link to Geographic Markup Language (GML) description of reference system. information
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    MD_Identifier or RS_Identifier

    Count Component Code
    1 Ellipsoid in Meters
    1 urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4269
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    EX_Extent

    Bounding Box Temporal Extent
    Count Component Description West East North South Start End
    1 -123.029672 -121.894576 38.146760 37.384922 2010-06-11 2011-03-04
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    EX_GeographicBoundingBox

    Count Component West East North South
    1 -123.029672 -121.894576 38.146760 37.384922
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    EX_TemporalExtent

    Count Component Start End
    1 2010-06-11 2011-03-04
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    MD_Format

    Count Component Name Version specification
    1 LAZ
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    MD_Medium

    none found
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    MD_Constraints

    Count Component Use Limitation
    1 Lidar Use Limitation These data depict the elevations at the time of the survey and are only accurate for that time. Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since this data set was collected and some parts of this data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use this data for critical applications without a full awareness of its limitations. Any conclusions drawn from analysis of this information are not the responsibility of NOAA or any of its partners. These data are NOT to be used for navigational purposes.
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    MD_ReferenceSystem

    Count Component Code Authority Title
    1 Ellipsoid Ellipsoid in Meters
    1 NAD83 urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4269 North American Datum 1983
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    MD_GridSpatialRepresentation

    none found
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    MD_Georeferenceable or MI_Georeferenceable

    none found
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    MD_Georectified or MI_Georectified

    none found
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    MD_Dimension

    none found
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    MD_CoverageDescription or MI_CoverageDescription

    none found
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    MD_Band or MI_Band

    none found
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    MI_RangeElementDescription

    none found
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    MD_AggregateInformation

    none found
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    LE_Source or LI_Source

    none found
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    LE_ProcessStep or LI_ProcessStep

    Count Component DateTime Description
    1 2011-03-01T00:00:00 Dewberry utilizes a variety of software suites for inventory management, classification, and data processing. All LiDAR related processes begin by importing the data into the GeoCue task management software. GeoCue allows the data to retain its delivered tiling scheme (1500 m by 1500 m). After the a review of the Terrapoint ground classification was completed, the dataset was processed through a water classification routine that utilizes breaklines compiled by Dewberry to automatically classify hydrographic features. The water classification routine selects ground points within the breakline polygons and automatically classifies them as class 9, water. During this water classification routine, points which are in close proximity (0.5 m) to the hydrographic features are moved to class 10, an ignored ground. In addition to classes 1, 2, 9, and 10, the project allows for a Class 7, noise points. This class was only used if needed when points could manually be identified as low/high points. The fully classified dataset is then processed through Dewberry's comprehensive quality control program. The data was classified as follows: Class 1 = Unclassified. This class includes vegetation, buildings, noise etc. Class 2 = Ground Class 7= Noise Class 9 = Water Class 10= Ignored Ground The LAS header information was verified to contain the following: Class (Integer) GPS Week Time (0.0001 seconds) Easting (0.001 m) Northing (0.001 m) Elevation (0.001 m) Echo Number (Integer 1 to 4) Echo (Integer 1 to 4) Intensity (8 bit integer) Flight Line (Integer) LiDAR Scan Angle (Integer degree)
    1 2012-10-01T00:00:00 The NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) received topographic files in LAS format. The files contained lidar elevation and intensity measurements. The data were received in UTM Zones 10 coordinates and were vertically referenced to NAVD88 using the Geoid09 model. The vertical units of the data were meters. CSC performed the following processing for data storage and Digital Coast provisioning purposes: 1. The topographic las files were converted from orthometric (NAVD88) heights to ellipsoidal heights using Geoid09. 2. The data were converted to LAZ format.
    1 2013-01-22T00:00:00 The NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) received lidar data files via ftp transfer from the NOAA Coastal Services Center. The data are currently being served via NOAA CSC Digital Coast at http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/. The data can be used to re-populate the system. The data are archived in LAS or LAZ format. The LAS format is an industry standard for LiDAR data developed by the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS); LAZ is a loseless compressed version of LAS developed by Martin Isenburg (http://www.laszip.org/). The data are exclusively in geographic coordinates (either NAD83 or ITRF94). The data are referenced vertically to the ellipsoid (either GRS80 or ITRF94), allowing for the ability to apply the most up to date geoid model when transforming to orthometric heights.
    1 9999-01-01T00:00:00 - Establishment of survey points to support the LiDAR data collection. Three existing published CGPS stations (CHAB, P181, P222) were observed in a GPS control network and used to establish three new points for the primary control for this site. 101U01,101U02, 101U04,AY0887 and AY1499 were observed and used to control all flight missions and static ground surveys. The following are the final coordinates of the control points used for this project: Station Id;Latitude;Longitude;Easting;Northing;Ellipsoidal_Height; 1010601; 37 30 52.26391; -122 29 41.86434; -16.6617 1010602; 37 27 16.57733; -122 06 37.48309; -29.7404 1010603; 37 39 48.24857; -122 07 23.10831; -23.1470 1010604; 37 59 35.03464; -122 03 44.26783; -26.2030 1010605; 37 59 49.29391; -122 45 33.01378; 50.3610
    1 9999-01-01T00:00:00 - Airborne acquisition of Lidar Terrapoint used one Optech ALTM 3100EA system to collect the data. The Optech System was configured in the following method: Aircraft Speed 150 knots Data Acquisition Height 1300 m AGL Swath Width 755 m Distance between Flight Lines 377 m Overlap 50 % Scanner Field Of View 19.2 +/- degrees Pulse Repetition Rate 70 KHz LiDAR Scan Frequency 38.7 Hz Number of Returns per Pulse 4 Discrete returns Beam Divergence 0.3 mRad Flight Line Length <30km Base Station Distance <35km Resultant Raw Point Density ~2 point pt/m2 with overlap 2 missions (o110292a, o110293a) were flown at higher altitude with different parameters to accommodate air traffic control restrictions Aircraft Speed 125 knots Data Acquisition Height 2300 m AGL Overlap 50 % Scanner Field Of View 15 +/- degrees Pulse Repetition Rate 50 KHz LiDAR Scan Frequency 25.5 Hz Number of Returns per Pulse 4 Discrete returns Beam Divergence 0.3 mRad Resultant Raw Point Density ~2 point pt/m2 with overlap Aircraft platforms were used in the collection of this project: A Piper Navaho aircraft, registered as FVTL was used to conduct the aerial survey. The Navaho is a fixed wing aircraft that have an endurance of approximately 6-7 hours. -GPS-IMU: High accuracy IMU and GPS information concerning the attitude and position of the sensor were acquired at the same time as the Laser data. Ground based GPS stations also acquired consecutive GPS information for the duration of the flights. A combination of Sokkia GSR 2600 and NovAtel DL-4+ dual-frequency GPS receivers were used to support the airborne operations of this survey. -Number of Flights A total of 14 missions were flown total under good meteorological and GPS conditions to provide complete coverage. The LiDAR data were collected under tidal restrictions at or below Mean Lower Low Water. 10 missions were acquired during spring 2010 (between June 11, 2010 and June 30, 2010) and 4 missions were acquired during fall (between October 19, 2010 and November 7, 2010)
    1 9999-01-01T00:00:00 - Airborne GPS Kinematic processing Airborne GPS kinematic data was processed on-site using GrafNav kinematic On-The-Fly (OTF) software. Flights were flown with a minimum of 6 satellites in view (13o above the horizon) and with a PDOP of better than 4. Distances from base station to aircraft were kept to a maximum of 30 km, to ensure a strong OTF (On-The-Fly) solution. For all flights, the GPS data can be classified as excellent, with GPS residuals of 3cm average but no larger than 10 cm being recorded. The Geoid09 geoid model, published by the NGS, was used to transform all ellipsoidal heights to orthometric.
    1 9999-01-01T00:00:00 - Generation and Calibration of laser points Laser data points are generated using Terrapoint's proprietary laser post-processing software for Midrange data and using Optech's software Dashmap for data acquired with Optech systems. Those software combine the raw laser range and angle data file with the finalized GPS/IMU trajectory information. Each mission is evaluated in Terrasolid's Terramatch software to correct any residual roll pitch heading misalignments, if necessary those values are to the data. The resulting point cloud is projected into the desired coordinate system and created in LAS format. One file per swath. On a project level, a coverage check is carried out to ensure no slivers are present.
    1 9999-01-01T00:00:00 - Mission to mission adjustments of Lidar data All missions are validated and adjusted against the adjoining missions for relative vertical biases and collected GPS kinematic ground truthing points for absolute vertical accuracy purposes. The following adjustments were applied to the data (vertical shifts in meters, + means raise the Lidar points and - means lower the Lidar points) o110163a, Dz= 0.05 o110164a, Dz= 0.15 o110173a, Dz= -0.25 o110178a, Dz= -0.1 o110179a, Dz= 0.05 o110292a, Dz= 0.2 o110293a, Dz= 0.2 o110305a, Dz= 0.2 o110306a line 30608 - 30615, Dz= 0.15 o110306a line 30616 - 30623, Dz= 0.2 o110306a line 30602 - 30607, Dz= 0.05
    1 9999-01-01T00:00:00 - Data Classification and Editing The data was processed using the software TerraScan, and following the methodology described herein. The initial step is the setup of the TerraScan project, which is done by importing project defined tile boundary index encompassing the entire project areas. The acquired 3D laser point clouds, in LAS binary format, were imported into the TerraScan project and divided into file size optimized tiles. Once tiled, the laser points were classified using a proprietary routine in TerraScan. This routine removes any obvious outliers from the dataset following which the ground layer is extracted from the point cloud. The ground extraction process encompassed in this routine takes place by building an iterative surface model. This surface model is generated using three main parameters: building size, iteration angle and iteration distance. The initial model is based on low points being selected by a "roaming window" with the assumption is that these are the ground points. The size of this roaming window is determined by the building size parameter. The low points are triangulated and the remaining points are evaluated and subsequently added to the model if they meet the iteration angle and distance constraints. This process is repeated until no additional points are added within iteration. A second critical parameter is the maximum terrain angle constraint, which determines the maximum terrain angle allowed within the classification model.
    1 9999-01-01T00:00:00 -Deliverable Product Generation >Tiling Index Classified point cloud products were delivered in 695 tiles based on provided a tile scheme given by the client. >Raw LIDAR Point Cloud Raw LiDAR point cloud, was provided in the following formats/parameters: - LAS V1.2, point record format 1, georeferencing information populated in header - The following fields are included in the LAS file: 1. Adjusted GPS time reported to the nearest microsecond 2. Flight line ID 3. Easting (reported to the nearest 0.01m) 4. Northing (reported to the nearest 0.01m) 5. Elevation (reported to the nearest 0.01m) 6. intensity 7. Echo number 8. Classification 9. Scan angle 10. Edge of scan 11. Scan direction - Full swaths, all collected points delivered (except planned cut-off and discarded flightline) - 1 file per swath, 1 swath per file (except when swath had to be divided in section for size or calibration) >Classified LIDAR Point Cloud, tiled Classified LiDAR point cloud, was provided in the following formats/parameters: - LAS V1.2, point record format 1, georeferencing information populated in header - The LAS files adhere to the ASPRS classification scheme as outlined below: 1 : Unclassified, 2 : Ground, 7 : Noise, - The following fields are included in the LAS file: 1. Adjusted GPS time reported to the nearest microsecond 2. Flight line ID 3. Easting (reported to the nearest 0.01m) 4. Northing (reported to the nearest 0.01m) 5. Elevation (reported to the nearest 0.01m) 6. intensity 7. Echo number 8. Classification 9. Scan angle 10. Edge of scan 11. Scan direction
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    MI_Operation

    none found
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    MI_Platform

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    MI_Instrument

    none found
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