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2012 NOAA American Samoa Lidar: Islands of Tutuila, Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, Ta'u and Rose Atoll
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.csc.maps:2012_AmSamoa_lidar_m2490
    language:  eng; USA
    characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  Mike Sutherland(author) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        organisationName: (template)
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
    dateStamp:  2013-06-28
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    spatialRepresentationInfo:  (MD_VectorSpatialRepresentation)
        geometricObjects:  (MD_GeometricObjects)
            geometricObjectType:  (MD_GeometricObjectTypeCode) point
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    referenceSystemInfo:  NAD83
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    referenceSystemInfo:  Ellipsoid
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  2012 NOAA American Samoa Lidar: Islands of Tutuila, Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, Ta'u and Rose Atoll
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  2013-06-01
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            citedResponsibleParty:  NOAA CSC (originator)
            citedResponsibleParty:  NOAA CSC (publisher) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName: (template)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) imageDigital
        abstract:  Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. This LiDAR dataset is a survey of American Samoa including the islands of Tutuila, Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, Ta'u and Rose Atoll. The project area consists of approximately 75 square miles. The project design of the LiDAR data acquisition was developed to support a nominal post spacing of 1.0 meter or better (1.0 meter GSD). GMR Aerial Surveys Inc. d/b/a Photo Science, Inc. acquired 108 flight lines in 7 lifts between June 2012 and July 2012. This collection was for NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC). The data collection was performed with a Beechcraft King Air 90 twin engine aircraft (tail number N87E) utilizing an Optech Gemini sensor; collecting multiple return x, y, and z as well as intensity data. The data were provided to CSC, classified as: Unclassified (1), Ground (2), Low Point (Noise) (7), Water (9), Breakline Edge (10), Overlap Unclassified (17) and Overlap Ground (18). The classifications available for download from the Digital Coast are: Unclassified (1), Ground (2), Low Point (Noise) 7, Water (9), Removed Ground (breakline edge) (10), and Overlap (12). The collection conditions were cloud and fog-free between the aircraft and the ground; streams must be within their banks; and low tide acquisition if at all possible. Data voids within a single swath were avoided whenever possible. Acceptable void areas are caused by a water body; areas of low near infrared (NIR) reflectivity such as asphalt or composition roofing and where appropriately filled in by another swath. Unfortunately, during the LiDAR acquisition there were a few mountain peaks where the clouds never lifted high enough to collect LiDAR. In order to post process the LiDAR data to meet task order specifications, Photo Science, Inc. established control points that were used to calibrate the LiDAR to known ground locations established on Tutuila. Please see the survey report for more details on ground control point collection at: ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/as/PhotoScience-AmSam_PostFlightAcquisitionReport_FINAL.pdf The dataset was developed based on a horizontal projection/datum of UTM NAD83 (PACP00), UTM Zone 2, meters. The vertical datum used during the collection, varied by island. NAVD88 (ASVD02), meters was used for the island of Tutuila (and Aunu'u). NAVD1988 (GEOID09), meters was used for the islands of Ofu, Olosega and Tau. Rose atoll was adjusted from Ellipsoid heights to a mean low water (MLW) datum. Upon receipt of the data, the NOAA Coastal Services Center converted the lidar data to geographic coordinates and ellipsoid heights using GEOID09. Rose Atoll data were converted to geographic coordinates and to ellipsoid heights using the MLW correction value of 22.8 m. Conversion is for data storage and Digital Coast provisioning purposes. LiDAR data was collected in RAW flightline swath format and processed to create Classified LAS 1.2 files.
        purpose:  The project was developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Coastal Services Center in Charleston, SC to collect and deliver topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements for American Samoa including islands of Tutila, Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, Ta'u and Rose Atoll. Data are intended for use in coastal management decision making. Classified LAS files are used to show the manually reviewed bare earth surface. This allows the user to create Intensity Images, Breaklines and Raster DEM.
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  NOAA CSC (pointOfContact) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName: (template)
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
        resourceMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
            maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) unknown
        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName:  ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/as/2012_NOAA_American_Samoa_Lidar.kmz
            fileDescription:  This kmz file shows the extent of coverage for the 2012 American Samoa lidar data set.
            fileType:  kmz
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Bathymetry/Topography
            keyword:  model
            keyword:  LiDAR
            keyword:  DEM
            keyword:  Raster
            keyword:  breaklines
            keyword:  remote sensing
            keyword:  elevation
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  none
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  United States
            keyword:  American Samoa
            keyword:  Tutuila
            keyword:  Aunu'u
            keyword:  Ofu
            keyword:  Olosega
            keyword:  Ta'u
            keyword:  Rose Atoll
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        resourceConstraints:  Lidar Use Limitation
        resourceConstraints:  NOAA Legal Statement
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Post-Flight Acquisition Report
                date: (inapplicable)
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    positionName:  Citation URL
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage:  ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/as/PhotoScience-AmSam_PostFlightAcquisitionReport_FINAL.pdf
                            name:  Post-Flight Acquisition Report
                            description: (inapplicable)
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role: (inapplicable)
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
        spatialRepresentationType:  (MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode) vector
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) elevation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -170.851652
                eastBoundLongitude:  -168.132827
                southBoundLatitude:  -14.564143
                northBoundLatitude:  -14.152104
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                    timePosition:  2012-06-25
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                    timePosition:  2012-06-27
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                    timePosition:  2012-07-05
        supplementalInformation:  There were seven lifts flown out of Pago Pago International Airport for Tutuila and Aunuu and Fitiuta Airport for Ofu, Olosega, Tau and Rose Atoll collection. Base stations were set up at the airports and sensor Serial Number 246 was used for all flights: June 25, 2012 A June 25, 2012 B June 25, 2012 C June 27, 2012 July 5, 2012 A July 5, 2012 B July 5, 2012 C
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  LAZ
            version: (unknown)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  NOAA CSC(distributor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName: (template)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                orderingInstructions:  The National Geophysical Data Center serves as the archive for this LIDAR data. NGDC should only be contacted for this data if it cannot be obtained from NOAA Coastal Services Center.
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  Mike Sutherland
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                orderingInstructions:  The National Geophysical Data Center serves as the archive for this LIDAR dataset. NGDC should only be contacted for the data if it cannot be obtained from NOAA Coastal Services Center.
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Collected to meet four feet RMSE or better.
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  The reported RMSEz value was determined using the calibration control points, and not the Blind Control. The calibration control points are the same points that were used to remove any bias in the dataset before bare earth editing. The islands control were measured with Ofu and Olosega; Tau; and Tutuila and Aunuu. The RMSE for each island: Ofu and Olosega RMSE 0.074 m. Tau RMSE 0.072 m. Tutuila and Aunuu RMSE 0.067 m. The listed RMSEz value shown below was calculated from the ground (ASPRS Class 2) data in the final Classified LAS files and is an average of the above RMSE values.
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy
            measureDescription:  RMSE in meters, as calculated from Classified LAS files
            result:  (DQ_QuantitativeResult)
                    identifier:  meters
                  Record:  0.071
        report:  (DQ_CompletenessCommission)
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Datasets contain complete coverage of project area and tiles.
            result: (unknown)
        report:  (DQ_ConceptualConsistency)
            measureDescription:  Raw Flightlines, Classified LAS files, Breaklines, and Raster DEMs were tested by Photo Science for vertical accuracy. Although collected on a tile-by-tile basis, breaklines are merged together to produce a single deliverable dataset. Checks are done to ensure that the data is seamless from one tile to the next before being combined and that breaklines meeting the project requirements have been collected across the entire project area. Combining the breaklines with LiDAR data to create other deliverables is another check of the data. All data are seamless from one tile to the next, no gaps or no data areas whenever possible. Unfortunately, during the LiDAR acquisition there were a few mountain peaks where the clouds never lifted high enough to collect LiDAR.
            result: (unknown)
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Control Process: Photo Science, Inc. established control points on Tutuila that were used to calibrate the LiDAR to known ground locations to be used in the post processing of the LiDAR data. The points were located on relatively flat terrain on surfaces that generally consisted of grass, gravel, pavement or bare earth and were in well-defined discrete locations. See The Post Flight Aerial Acquisition and Calibration Report for additional collection parameters and methodologies: ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/as/PhotoScience-AmSam_PostFlightAcquisitionReport_FINAL.pdf Raw Flight Line Process: Applanix software was used in the post processing of the airborne GPS and inertial data that is critical to the positioning and orientation of the sensor during all flights. POSPac MMS provides the smoothed best estimate of trajectory (SBET) that is necessary for Optech's post processor to develop the point cloud from the LiDAR missions. The point cloud is the mathematical three dimensional collection of all returns from all laser pulses as determined from the aerial mission. At this point this data is ready for analysis, classification, and filtering to generate a bare earth surface model in which the above ground features are removed from the data set. The point cloud was manipulated within the Optech software; GeoCue, TerraScan, and TerraModeler software was used for the automated data classification, manual cleanup, and bare earth generation from this data. Project specific macros were used to classify the ground and to remove the side overlap between parallel flight lines. All data were manually reviewed and any remaining artifacts removed using functionality provided by TerraScan and TerraModeler. Classified LAS Process: All ground (ASPRS Class 2) LiDAR data inside of the Lake Pond and Double Line Drain hydro flattening breaklines were then classified to water (ASPRS Class 9) using TerraScan macro functionality. A buffer of 1 meter was also used around each hydro flattened feature to classify these ground (ASPRS Class 2) points to ignored ground (ASPRS Class 10). All Lake Pond Island and Double Line Drain Island features were checked to ensure that the ground (ASPRS Class 2) were reclassified to the correct classification after the automated classification was completed. A description of each deliverable class can be found below: Class 1 - Unclassified points; includes non-ground points such as buildings and vegetation. Class 2 - Ground points Class 7 - Noise points; includes all high and low noise points that do not represent legitimate features. Class 9 - Water points Class 10 - Ignored Ground points; includes all ground points that fall within a 1 meter buffer around any hydro breakline feature. Classifying these points aids in the hydro flattened DEM creation. Class 17 - Overlap Unclassified points; Overlap points that represent non-ground features. Class 18 - Overlap Ground points; Overlap points that represent the ground surface. These points were classified based on their x,y and z proximity to the Class 2 ground points. No manual cleanup was performed on these points. All overlap data was processed through automated functionality provided by TerraScan to classify the overlapping flight line data to class. Data was then run through additional macros to ensure deliverable classification levels matching the ASPRS LAS Version 1.2 Classification structure. GeoCue functionality was then used to ensure correct LAS Versioning. In-house software was used as a final QA/QC check to provide LAS Analysis of the delivered tiles. QA/QC checks were performed on a per tile level to verify final classification metrics and full LAS header information.
                  DateTime:  2012-01-01T00:00:00
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Photo Science, Inc.
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                            voice:  859-277-8700
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            deliveryPoint:  523 Wellington Way, Suite 375
                            city:  Lexington
                            administrativeArea:  KY
                            postalCode:  40503
                            country:  US
                            electronicMailAddress:  sraber@photoscience.com
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) received the files in las format. The files contained LiDAR elevation and intensity measurements. The data were delivered in UTM Zone 2 projection, NAD83 datum, meters. Data available are classified as follows: Unclassified (1), Ground (2), Low Point (Noise) 7, Water (9), Removed Ground (breakline edge) (10), and Overlap (12). CSC performed the following processing for data storage and Digital Coast provisioning purposes: 1. The data were converted from UTM Zone 2, NAD83 coordinates to geographic coordinates. 2. The Tutuila (and Aunu'u), Ofu, Olosega, and Tau data were converted from NAVD88 (orthometric) heights to GRS80 (ellipsoid) heights using Geoid09. 3. The Rose Atoll data were converted from MLW to ellipsoid (using MLW correction value of 22.8 m) 4. The data were converted to LAZ format.
                  DateTime:  2013-05-01T00:00:00
                processor:  NOAA CSC (processor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (template)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) received lidar data files via ftp transfer from the NOAA Coastal Services Center. The data are currently being served via NOAA CSC Digital Coast at http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/. The data can be used to re-populate the system. The data are archived in LAS or LAZ format. The LAS format is an industry standard for LiDAR data developed by the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS); LAZ is a loseless compressed version of LAS developed by Martin Isenburg (http://www.laszip.org/). The data are exclusively in geographic coordinates (either NAD83 or ITRF94). The data are referenced vertically to the ellipsoid (either GRS80 or ITRF94), allowing for the ability to apply the most up to date geoid model when transforming to orthometric heights.
                  DateTime:  2013-06-28T00:00:00
                processor:  Mike Sutherland (processor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (template)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) annually
        dateOfNextUpdate:  2014-06-28
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata standard (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using the 2013-01-04 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 for LiDAR transform.
        maintenanceNote:  Translated from FGDC 2013-06-28T16:15:19.895-06:00