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2008 USACE NCMP Topographic Lidar: Lake Superior
 (MI_Metadata)
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.csc.maps:mi2008_usace_lakesuperior_m2517
    language:  eng; USA
    characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  Mike Sutherland(author) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        organisationName: (template)
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
    dateStamp:  2013-10-17
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    spatialRepresentationInfo:  (MD_VectorSpatialRepresentation)
        geometricObjects:  (MD_GeometricObjects)
            geometricObjectType:  (MD_GeometricObjectTypeCode) point
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    referenceSystemInfo:  NAD83
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    referenceSystemInfo:  Ellipsoid
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  2008 USACE NCMP Topographic Lidar: Lake Superior
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  2013-08-09
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            citedResponsibleParty:  NOAA CSC (originator)
            citedResponsibleParty:  JALBTCX (originator)
            citedResponsibleParty:  NOAA CSC (publisher) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName: (template)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) imageDigital
        abstract:  Fugro Pelagos contracted BLOM Aerofilms Limited to carry out the bathymetric laser data acquisition and part of the hyperspectral imagery capture for these 3 areas which totals approximately 240km2. This data was collected using a Hawk Eye II hydrographic and topographic LiDAR sensor. Imagery was acquired using a uEye 2250-M/C USB2.0 CCD UXGA Camera. The laserdata was processed onsite using Coastal Survey Studio and POSpac software to check for coverage and quality. The data was then processed at the Cheddar office using the Terrasolid OY software; the necessary macros were applied and manual reclassification was performed. Each individual wave form was analysed in Coastal Survey Studio and reflectance values were gained; these values were then combined with the classified laser data A conversion tool was then used to give the correct projections (IGLD85 and NAD83) and the data was exported in an ASCII format.
        purpose:  The purpose of the survey is to collect data representing the existing conditions of the beach and near shore area along the Great Lake shorelines in support of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program executed by the Joint Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX)
        credit:  JALBTCX
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  JALBTCX (pointOfContact) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName: (template)
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
        resourceMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
            maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) asNeeded
        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName:  ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/mi/2008_USACE_Great_Lakes_TopoBathy_Lidar_MI_Lake_Superior.kmz
            fileDescription:  This kmz file shows the extent of coverage for the 2008 USACE Lake Superior, WI/MI topo-bathy lidar data set.
            fileType:  kmz
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Bathymetry/Topography
            keyword:  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District
            keyword:  JALBTCX
            keyword:  CHARTS
            keyword:  SHOALS
            keyword:  LiDAR
            keyword:  Elevation
            keyword:  ASCII XYZ
            keyword:  BLOM Aerofilms Ltd
            keyword:  Hawk Eye II
            keyword:  Fugro Pelagos
            keyword:  Topography
            keyword:  Bathymetry
            keyword:  elevation
            keyword:  inlandWaters (for Great Lakes projects)
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  United States
            keyword:  Michigan
            keyword:  Alger County
            keyword:  Chippewa County
            keyword:  Luce County
            keyword:  Ontonagon County
            keyword:  Wisconsin
            keyword:  Bayfield County
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  2008
            keyword:  October
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) temporal
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        resourceConstraints:  Lidar Use Limitation
        resourceConstraints:  NOAA Legal Statement
        spatialRepresentationType:  (MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode) vector
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) elevation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -91.208258
                eastBoundLongitude:  -85.164464
                southBoundLatitude:  46.536586
                northBoundLatitude:  47.003618
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  2008-11-03
                    endPosition:  2008-11-11
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  LAZ
            version: (unknown)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  NOAA CSC(distributor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName: (template)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                orderingInstructions:  The National Geophysical Data Center serves as the archive for this LIDAR data. NGDC should only be contacted for this data if it cannot be obtained from NOAA Coastal Services Center.
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  Mike Sutherland
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                orderingInstructions:  The National Geophysical Data Center serves as the archive for this LIDAR dataset. NGDC should only be contacted for the data if it cannot be obtained from NOAA Coastal Services Center.
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  The data has been collected and compiled to meet the: Bathy data: +/- 2.50m rmse Topo data: +/- 0.50m rmse accuracy specification. Confirmation of achieved accuracy was demonstrated in Ground Control Area comparisons with recorded data
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Horizontal Positional Accuracy
            measureDescription:  1 Sigma
            result:  (DQ_QuantitativeResult)
                valueUnit:
                  BaseUnit:
                    identifier:  meters
                    unitsSystem:
                value:
                  Record:  0.75
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  The data has been collected and compiled to meet the +/- 0.25m rmse accuracy specification. Confirmation of the achieved accuracy was demonstrated by Ground Control Area comparisons
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy
            measureDescription:  RMSE at 1sigma = 0.25m
            result:  (DQ_QuantitativeResult)
                valueUnit:
                  BaseUnit:
                    identifier:  meters
                    unitsSystem:
                value:
                  Record:  0.25
        report:  (DQ_CompletenessCommission)
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Not provided
            result: (unknown)
        report:  (DQ_ConceptualConsistency)
            measureDescription:  LiDAR Specifications: 400m above lake surface level flying height; 15-20 degree field of view, 220m average swath widths flown with 30m side overlap; 64,000 pulses per second (land), 4,000 pulses per second (sea), 1.064 um wavelength (red, land) and 532 um wavelength (green, sea).,Up to 4 returns and one REFLECTANCE value per pulse. LiDAR flown with Hawk Eye Mark II LiDAR. The flights consisted of generally of flight lines parallell with the shoreline, with further overlapping and transverse flight lines to ensure coverage of the entire area as required. LiDAR data and camera calibration carried out as required on commencement of survey, when cameras / laser heads were changed and at other periods as necessary. Acgusition: Hawk Eye II is operated by Blom Aerofilms using one operator and one pilot in a small aeroplane (Rockwell Commander N-690CL). Data were acquried using HawkEye II. Sensor orientation was measured using POS AV 410 with GPS running at 10Hz). Images were acquired using uEye UCGA 2M Pixel digital camera.
            result: (unknown)
        report:  (DQ_QuantitativeAttributeAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Quantitative Attribute Accuracy Assessment
            measureDescription:  These data are not attributed.
            evaluationMethodDescription:  The raw topographic LiDAR was compared to ground surveyed reference surfaces within the project. The xyz position of the surface points surveyed by RTK GPS was located in the .dgn file and the point cloud hits on the surface were assessed. The raw LiDAR z was compared to the surveyed z, to generate the values given above. The flight lines and trajectories were then matched and adjusted to remove systematic errors. This then ensured the data was to the required specification before the data was used for production of the deliverables.
            result:  (DQ_QuantitativeResult)
                valueUnit:
                  BaseUnit:
                    identifier:  meters
                    unitsSystem:
                value:
                  Record:  N/A
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The laser data was collected using the HawkEye Mk II airborne system, the Hawkeye MKII system consists of two lasers scanners; one green (wavelength 532um) which is used for capturing the Bathymetric data and one red (wavelength 1.064um) for the Topographic data. The system emitted 64 000 pulses per second (topographic) and 4 000 pulses per second (bathymetric) with up to 4 returns and one reflectance value per pulse. The laser data collected was flown using a fixed wing platform mounted to the Rockwell Aero Commander 690 aircraft registration N690CL. The Aircraft was crewed with one pilot and one operator who was responsible for flight line planning, mission planning and aircraft control during the survey. The operator used the AHAB Airborne Operator Console software to do this Sensor orientation was measured using POS AV 410 with GPS running at 10Hz. The aerial acquisition starting on the 01st October 2008; the flying height for the survey was 400m (approx 1300ft) with a swathe of 220m and a 30m flightline overlap, with the flight speed some 150 knots (approx 290 km/h). A total of 145 flight-lines were required and a total of 17 online hours to cover the 3 survey areas in order to achieve 100% coverage. Area 1 required 88 lines and 11 online hours, Area 5 required 24 lines and 3 online hours and Area 6 required 33 lines and 3 online hours. The raw LiDAR data was checked for matching and coverage following each flight; trajectory files were produced using POSpac v5.2 and the data was then processed using Coastal Survey Studio (CSS) v2.1. A final check at the end of the acquisition period confirmed that all requirements had been met and all the data acquired to specification. On completion of all the QC checks the laser data for each flight line was exported as individual files for import into Terrascan for cleaning and classification. Topographic and hydrographic data was processed to different criteria, however during processing all data sets were kept together so it was possible to edit and visualise both datasets in the same environment simultaneously. Both the topographic and hydrographic laser data was imported into the TerraSolid OY software running in the MicroStation v8 environment. The laser data was passed through a number of automated macros for classification. The topographic laser data was then checked with the imagery by an experienced editor to remove any hits from the sea areas and to ensure that the ground was correctly classified. To ensure the quality of the data it was compared with topographic land survey data and overlapping or crossing flightlines are checked. The hydrographic laser data was "cleaned", removing any rogue points, floating structures, deep points or null points with no bottom returns. Overlapping or crossing flightlines were checked and comparison with topographic points took place to ensure quality. To gain reflectance values, the wave form of each individual laser sounding was analyzed in CSS (Coastal Survey Studio); the echo intensity was extracted and the data was corrected for several system biases. These included 'receiver gain', 'flight altitude' and 'scanner angle'. Several clear sand areas with known reflectance were used as a reference sample for the creation of a reflectance calibration model which took both theoretical bias and environmental bias into account. This model was used to further correct the data gained. An internal tool was then used to take those values and match them with the 'cleaned' data set by time and position. The tool was used to change the projection of the points and produce a hydrographic return ASCII file which contains data regarding longitude, latitude, UTM zone, easting, northing, elevation(IGLD85), elevation (ellipsoid), date (YYYY.MM.DD), time (HH:MM:SS:ssssss) and Bottom reflectance data relative to both NAD83 ellipsoid and International Great Lakes Datum 1985 (IGLD85).
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2009-01-01T00:00:00
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The laser data was collected using the HawkEye Mk II airborne system, the Hawkeye MKII system consists of two lasers scanners; one green (wavelength 532um) which is used for capturing the Bathymetric data and one red (wavelength 1.064um) for the Topographic data. The system emitted 64 000 pulses per second (topographic) and 4 000 pulses per second (bathymetric) with up to 4 returns and one reflectance value per pulse. The laser data collected was flown using a fixed wing platform mounted to the Rockwell Aero Commander 690 aircraft registration N690CL. The Aircraft was crewed with one pilot and one operator who was responsible for flight line planning, mission planning and aircraft control during the survey. The operator used the AHAB Airborne Operator Console software to do this. Sensor orientation was measured using POS AV 410 with GPS running at 10Hz. The aerial acquisition starting on the 01st October 2008; the flying height for the survey was 400m (approx 1300ft) with a swathe of 220m and a 30m flightline overlap, with the flight speed some 150 knots (approx 290 km/h). A total of 145 flight-lines were required and a total of 17 online hours to cover the 3 survey areas in order to achieve 100% coverage. Area 1 required 88 lines and 11 online hours, Area 5 required 24 lines and 3 online hours and Area 6 required 33 lines and 3 online hours. The raw LiDAR data was checked for matching and coverage following each flight; trajectory files were produced using POSpac v5.2 and the data was then processed using Coastal Survey Studio (CSS) v2.1. A final check at the end of the acquisition period confirmed that all requirements had been met and all the data acquired to specification. On completion of all the QC checks the laser data for each flight line was exported as individual files for import into Terrascan for cleaning and classification. Topographic and hydrographic data was processed to different criteria, however during processing all data sets were kept together so it was possible to edit and visualise both datasets in the same environment simultaneously. Both the topographic and hydrographic laser data was imported into the TerraSolid OY software running in the MicroStation v8 environment. The laser data was passed through a number of automated macros for classification. The topographic laser data was then checked with the imagery by an experienced editor to remove any hits from the sea areas and to ensure that the ground was correctly classified. To ensure the quality of the data it was compared with topographic land survey data and overlapping or crossing flightlines are checked. The hydrographic laser data was "cleaned", removing any rogue points, floating structures, deep points or null points with no bottom returns. Overlapping or crossing flightlines were checked and comparison with topographic points took place to ensure quality. The data was then exported from Terrascan into a conversion tool; this was used to change the projection of the points and produce ASCII files which contain data relative to both NAD83 ellipsoid and International Great Lakes Datum 1985 (IGLD85). Four ASCII tiles were produced for each 5km tile; topographic first return, topographic last return, hydrographic return and a combined topographic last return and hydrographic return. The topographic first return and topographic last return files were then reopened in Terrascan. Using the trajectories produced by POSpac and deducing by time, all points were put into their respective flightline. Each individual flightline was then exported in 5km tiles in LAS1.0 format.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2009-01-01T00:00:00
                processor:  JALBTCX (processor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (template)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) received topo and hydro files in ASCII format. Topography data was provided within GeoClassified LAS files and original LAS strips. The files contained LiDAR elevation and intensity measurements. The points were classed as 'never classified.' The data were provided in Geographic coordinates and ellipsoidal heights and in orthometric heights. CSC performed the following processing to the ellipsoidal height data to make it available within the Digital Coast: 1. ASCII formatted files were converted to LAS files using LAStools. The ASCII files contained topography/bathymetry data. Bathyemtric LAS files, along with provided GeoClassified LAS files and original LAS strips were processed to remove high and and low error (or "air") points. 2. All points classified as 21 were reclassified to 17 to fit the defined a scheme for NOAA Data Access Viewer. 3. All LAS files were then shifted vertically using NOAA's Vdatum software algorithms from IGLD85 to NAVD88. 4. All LAS files were then shifted horizontally and shifted from NAD83, UTM zone 16 to Geographic decimal degrees. 5. Metadata were created, along with a KMZ for the project and ancillary information provided in metadata record. 6. Finally, since original provided were differentiated by data type (i.e. GeoClassified LAS files, LAS strips and ASCII txt files, all data were compiled into one dataset. 7. Due to vertical and horizontal datum shifting in order to have ASCII, geoclassified and las strips to match NOAA CSC requirements, the data has been reverted to all unclassified points, although data contains bathymetric and topographic points.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2013-08-08T00:00:00
                processor:  NOAA CSC (processor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (template)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  The NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) received lidar data files via ftp transfer from the NOAA Coastal Services Center. The data are currently being served via NOAA CSC Digital Coast at http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/. The data can be used to re-populate the system. The data are archived in LAS or LAZ format. The LAS format is an industry standard for LiDAR data developed by the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS); LAZ is a loseless compressed version of LAS developed by Martin Isenburg (http://www.laszip.org/). The data are exclusively in geographic coordinates (either NAD83 or ITRF94). The data are referenced vertically to the ellipsoid (either GRS80 or ITRF94), allowing for the ability to apply the most up to date geoid model when transforming to orthometric heights.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2013-10-17T00:00:00
                processor:  Mike Sutherland (processor) (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName: (template)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) annually
        dateOfNextUpdate:  2014-10-17
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata standard (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using the 2013-01-04 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 for LiDAR transform.
        maintenanceNote:  Translated from FGDC 2013-10-17T11:27:47.811-06:00