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Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)
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        individualName:  Redmon, Robert
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, Department of Commerce
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                electronicMailAddress:  ionosonde@noaa.gov
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    dateStamp:  2015-09-18
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1958-01-01
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            edition:  First
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                        linkage:  ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/SOLAR_DATA/Sudden_Ionospheric_Disturbances
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                        name:  Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances
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        abstract:  Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization in the D-region of the ionosphere over the daylit hemisphere of the Earth. SID's typically begin simultaneously or a few minutes after the start of a solar flare, and can have a time duration somewhat longer than the flare with a rise time more rapid than the decay time.Types of SIDs are SCNA--sudden cosmic noise absorption is a riometer-detected sudden daytime absorption increases; SEA--sudden enhancement of atmospherics are increases in signal strength on wideband equipment operated in the VLF, 10 to 50 KHz frequency range; SES--sudden enhancement of signal, observed on VLF frequencies in the 15 to 50 KHz range are nearly identical to SEA except that the receivers are narrow-band receivers designed to pick up man-made VLF transmission. Like SEA, signal strength increase is the SID indicator; SFD--sudden frequency deviation is the sudden increase of high frequency radiowaves which reaches a peak, and then decays back to the transmitting frequency; SPA--sudden phase anomaly is an abrupt shift in the phase of a radio signal on VLF frequencies received by ionospheric reflection; SWF--short wave fadeouts are abrupt decreases of radio signal strength observed at VLF frequencies.Tables of SIDs include the date; beginning, maximum and ending times; type of SID; importance on a scale of 1- to 3+ and the corresponding solar flare, if known.
        purpose:  Solar Disturbances Research
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) underDevelopment
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Redmon, Robert
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Sun-earth Interactions > Solar Activity > Solar Radio Waves
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            keyword:  Solar Physics
            keyword:  Short Wave Fade
            keyword:  Sudden Phase Anomaly
            keyword:  Solar Flare Atmospherics
            keyword:  D Region
            keyword:  Soft X-Rays
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            keyword:  Ionosphere
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            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                    date:  1995-04-24
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            useLimitation:  While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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            otherConstraints:  Use Constraints: None
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        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
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                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1958-01-01
                    endPosition:
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                individualName:  Redmon, Robert
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                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  ionosonde@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30-5:00 Mountain
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                linkage:  ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/SOLAR_DATA/Sudden_Ionospheric_Disturbances
                protocol:  ftp
                name:  Index of Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances
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                linkage:  ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/SOLAR_DATA/Sudden_Ionospheric_Disturbances
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                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard (version FGDC-STD-012-2002) using the 2012-08-08 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform.
        maintenanceNote:  Translated from FGDC 2012-10-10T11:10:06.72-06:00
        maintenanceNote:  This record was automatically modified on 2015-09-18 to include references to NCEI where applicable.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Anna Milan
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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