|Satellites monitor in situ the effect of the Sun on the near-Earth environment. The
GOES and SOLRAD satellites orbited at geostationary levels, about 22,000 miles above
the Earth’s surface. The ACE satellite is stationed in interplanetary space at the
L1 libration point where the Earth’s and Sun’s gravitational fields cancel each other.
The satellite instrumentation gives information about solar flares, coronal mass ejection,
and geomagnetic storms impacting the near-Earth environment. This information is important
to the operations of radio and satellite communication and navigation systems, electric
power networks, geophysical exploration, astronauts, high-altitude plane flights and