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Measurement of the Low-Energy Portion of the Primary Cosmic Ray Spectrum

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        individualName:  Solar Data Manager
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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            phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                voice:  303.497.6133 or 303.497.6323
                facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
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                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC2 325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  solar.ngdc@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 4:30 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
    dateStamp:  2011-11-17
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Measurement of the Low-Energy Portion of the Primary Cosmic Ray Spectrum
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1953
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:  COSMIC RAY - NEUTRON MONITOR
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
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                name:  Solar Terrestrial Physics
                issueIdentification:  'STP-93-3, Neutron Monitor Data on CD-ROM'
        abstract:  Most cosmic rays come from the galaxy, though some are produced by eruptive events on the Sun's surface. These high energy cosmic ray particles can affect satellites, causing single event upsets. Scientists have postulated that cosmic rays can affect the earth by causing changes in weather. Cosmic rays can cause clouds to form in the upper atmosphere, after the particles collide with other atmospheric particles in our troposphere. The process of a cosmic ray particle colliding with particles in our atmosphere and disintegrating into smaller pions, muons, and the like, is called a cosmic ray shower. These particles can be measured on the Earth's surface by neutron monitors.Ground-based neutron monitors detect variations in the approximately 500 Mev to 20 GeV (low energy) portion of the primary cosmic ray spectrum. This class of cosmic ray detector is more sensitive in the approximate 500 Mev to 4 GeV portion of the cosmic ray spectrum than are cosmic ray muon detectors. The portion of the cosmic ray spectrum that reaches the Earth's atmosphere is controlled by the geomagnetic cutoff which varies from a minimum (theoretically zero) at the magnetic poles to a vertical cosmic ray cutoff of about 15 GV (ranging from 13 to 17) in the equatorial regions. (Note: GeV is a unit of energy, GV is a unit of magnetic rigidity). The primary cosmic ray particles interact with the atmosphere and generate secondaries, some of which will reach the surface of the Earth. In high latitude regions of the Earth, where the geomagnetic cutoff is low, the lower threshold response of the neutron monitor is controlled by the atmospheric mass (about 1030 grams at sea level) which limits the response threshold of the neutron monitor to primary radiation of about 430 MeV. (At the South Pole, where the surface is 2820 M above sea level, the reduced atmospheric mass lowers the primary radiation detection threshold to about 300 MeV). At mid-latitudes or equatorial latitudes, the detection threshold is controlled by the geomagnetic cutoff. Neutron monitors at high altitudes have higher counting rates than neutron monitors at lower altitudes because of the atmospheric absorption of the cosmic ray secondaries generated near the top of the atmosphere. When the secondary cosmic rays interact in the monitor, (actually in lead surrounding the counters) they cause nuclear disintegrations, or stars. These stars are composed of charged fragments and neutrons typically in the energy range of tens to hundreds of MeV, even up to GeV energies. As a result of these high energy nuclear interactions, there will be more secondary fragments generated than incident particles and hence there is a multiplier effect for the counters. The neutrons are moderated and then counted using Boron tri-fluoride (BF3) proportional counters which are efficient thermal neutron detectors; hence the name neutron monitor. The original design is often designated as an IGY neutron monitor. A description of this type of instrument is given by Simpson, (Annals of the IGY, Vol. 4, pp. 351-373, 1957). The NM-64 or super neutron monitor was developed for the IQSY (International Quiet Sun Years 1964-65) when instruments with a higher counting capacity were required. A description of this type of neutron monitor is given by Carmichael (Annals of the IQSY, Vol. 1, pp. 178-197, 1968). Super neutron monitors are often designated as xx-NM-64 where xx is the number of tubes in the monitors. An 18-NM-64 at high latitude has a counting rate of approximately 1 million counts per hour or 0.1 percent statistics. The neutron monitor and supermonitor digital data for the time period 1953 to present are available at http://spidr.ngdc.noaa.gov and consist of over 100 stations' hourly (UT) values of: (a) counting rates corrected for atmospheric pressure effects; (b) uncorrected counting rates; and (c) atmospheric pressure data. If it is not possible to have all three types of data, the most important is the counting rate corrected for atmospheric pressure.NGDC also holds paper archives for some cosmic ray Ionization Chamber monitors and some meson telescopes, mostly during the period of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and International Quiet Sun Years (IQSY) 1957-1968.
        purpose:  Cosmic Ray Research
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) underDevelopment
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            individualName:  Solar Data Manager
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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                    voice:  303.497.6133 or 303.497.6323
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                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC2 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  solar.ngdc@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 4:30 Mountain
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            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Atmosphere
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Sun-earth Interactions > Ionosphere/Magnetosphere Particles > Energetic Particles
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            keyword:  Space Physics
            keyword:  Aurora
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: No Constraints Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
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            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
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                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1953-01-01
                    endPosition:
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                individualName:  Solar Data Manager
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  303.497.6133 or 303.497.6323
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC2 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  solar.ngdc@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 4:30 Mountain
                    contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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                fees:  Depends on the Data Set
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: Paper Pages Ordering Instructions: Contact Data Center Custom Order Process: Contact data center for information
                turnaround:  4 Days
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                fees:  Depends on the Data Set
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Price information is available upon request. Prepay by check, money order or bank card There is a standard handling charge, with additional costs for special handling. Orders may be placed via fax, email, regular mail or telephone Custom Order Process: Contact data center for information
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                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/SOLAR/ftpcosmicrays.html
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        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Solar Data Manager
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  303.497.6133 or 303.497.6323
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC2 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  solar.ngdc@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 4:30 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian