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Solar Flares in Hydrogen Alpha and X-rays

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    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar:G01256
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        individualName:  Solar Data Manager
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                voice:  303.497.6133 or 303.497.6323
                facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC2 325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  solar.ngdc@noaa.gov
            hoursOfService:  7:30 - 4:30 Mountain
            contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
    dateStamp:  2011-11-17
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Solar Flares in Hydrogen Alpha and X-rays
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1919
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp)
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            series:  (CI_Series)
                name:  Solar Geophysical Data (SGD) International Standard Serial Numbers (ISSN)
                issueIdentification:  ISSN 0038-0911 Solar Geophysical Data (SGD) Published Monthly
        abstract:  A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the H-alpha wavelength and occurs in the chromosphere, though occasionally white light flares are seen in the photosphere. In modern times the solar X-ray wavelengths are monitored via satellite for solar flares. Flares are characterized by a rise time of the order of minutes and a decay of the order of tens of minutes. The total energy expended in a typical flare is about 10**30 ergs; the magnetic field is extraordinarily high, reaching values of 100 to 10,000 gauss. Optical flares in H-alpha are usually accompanied by radio and X-ray bursts, and occasionally by high-energy particle emissions. The optical brightness and size of the flare are indicated by a two-character code called "importance." The first character, a number from 1 to 4, indicates the apparent area. For areas of less than 1, an "S" is used to designate a subflare. The second character indicates relative brilliance: B for bright, N for normal and F for faint. A general discussion of solar flares is found in Svestka's, SOLAR FLARES (1976). The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) holds archives for about 80 stations, covering the period 1938 to the present. Currently 5 stations send their data to NGDC Boulder on a routine monthly basis -- the current main observing emphasis for Space Weather has transitioned to Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) which directly impact the Earth's geomagnetic field. Solar flares impact the Earth's upper atmosphere and can eject high energy particles that can cause satellite failures. The flare reports are processed and published in the monthly report "Solar-Geophysical Data" and in a different format in the IAU "Quarterly Bulletin on Solar Activity."
        purpose:  To provide long-term scientific data stewardship for the Nation's geophysical data, ensuring quality, integrity, and accessibility
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        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Solar Data Manager
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  303.497.6133 or 303.497.6323
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC2 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  solar.ngdc@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 4:30 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
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        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Earth Science > Sun-Earth Interactions > Solar Activity > Solar Active Regions
            keyword:  Earth Science > Sun-Earth Interactions > Solar Activity > Solar Imagery
            keyword:  Earth Science > Sun-Earth Interactions > Solar Activity > Sunspots
            keyword:  Earth Science > Sun-earth Interactions > Solar Activity > Solar Filaments
            keyword:  Earth Science > Sun-earth Interactions > Solar Activity > Solar Flares
            keyword:  Earth Science > Sun-earth Interactions > Solar Activity > Solar Prominences
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                    date:  2007-04
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            keyword:  WDC/STP, BOULDER > World Data Center for Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Boulder
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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            keyword:  Space > Solar Region > Photosphere
            keyword:  Space > Solar Region > Chromosphere
            keyword:  Space > Solar Region > Corona
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1919-03-01
                    endPosition:
        supplementalInformation:  These archives include:Solar H-alpha Flare events -- 1980-present; earlier data 1938-1999, Solar H-alpha Flare patrol observations from a worldwide network 1955-present, Solar X-ray Flares from the GOES satellite 1975 to present and from the SOLRAD satellite 1968-1974, Solar H-alpha Flare Index -- 1976-present, Kandilli Solar Observatory and Comprehensive Flare Index 1955-1980 -- based on SID importance, H-alpha flare importance, 10.7 cm solar radio flux magnitude, solar radio spectral Type II and IV, and magnitude of 200 MHz radio flux (Dodson and Hedeman)
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            version:
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            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Solar Data Manager
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  303.497.6133 or 303.497.6323
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC2 325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  solar.ngdc@noaa.gov
                    hoursOfService:  7:30 - 4:30 Mountain
                    contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) distributor
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                fees:  Depends on what data is requested.
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm Film Reels Ordering Instructions: Price information is available upon request. Prepay by check, money order or bank card. There is a standard handling charge, with additional costs for special handling. Orders may be placed via fax, email, regular mail or telephone.
                turnaround:  4 Days
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  $100.00/$75.00 plus handling and shipping outside the USA
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product is available from our online store at: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01256-CDR-A0001
                turnaround:  Four Days
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              Real:  59.6
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                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/SOLAR/getdata.html
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                linkage:  ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/SOLAR_DATA/SOLAR_FLARES
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                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/SOLAR/ftpsolarimages.html
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                linkage: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/SOLAR/ftpsolarflares.html
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        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Solar Data Manager
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  303.497.6133 or 303.497.6323
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC2 325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  solar.ngdc@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  7:30 - 4:30 Mountain
                contactInstructions:  Contact Data Center
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian