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Metadata Identifier: gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar:solar-imagery_chromosphere_calcium

Aggregation Info | Bands | Citations | Constraints | Coverage Descriptions | Dimensions | Extents | Formats | Geographic Bounding Box
Georectified Information | Georeferenceable Information | Identifiers | Instruments | Mediums | OnlineResources | Operations
Platforms | Process Steps | Range Elements | Reference Systems | Responsible Parties | Series | Sources | Spatial Grids | Temporal Extents

MD_DataIdentification

Count Component Title Abstract
1 Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500 to 2000 km above the photosphere that are not evident in white light images. The chromosphere is an extremely dynamic layer of the sun consisting of a mixture of hot ionized plasma and cool gas. The presence of calcium ions in the chromospheric (along with other ions such as helium and hydrogen) lead to the absorption of radiant emission from the sun. The Ca II K absorption lines are extremely sensitive to local magnetic fields wherein the presence of stronger magnetic fields results in less absorption (brighter features) than weaker fields (more absorption = darker features). Unique features of the chromosphere evident in Ca II K are plage, pores, supergranulation cells and the chromospheric network. Also observed in Ca II K are solar features typically discussed in the context of the photosphere, including sunspots and faculae. Sunspots in photospheric observations appear as dark regions due to the cooler temperatures (~3000 oK) of the overlying gas compared to the surrounding solar surface (~5500 oK). Although sunspots are regions of intense solar magnetic activity (i.e. less absorption), the lack of radiant emissions from the underlying photosphere results in chromospheric sunspot regions that remain darker than the surrounding sun. Faculae, on the other hand, are brighter regions in chromospheric observations which result from the concentration of magnetic field lines between solar granules (solar convection cells). Closely associated with faculae are bright areas of chromospheric plage, also referred to as floccule, within solar active regions that are associated with sunspot formation. Solar pores are actually small sunspots that have not yet formed (and may never form) into the standard picture of a dark central umbra surrounded by a somewhat brighter penumbra. Supergranulation cells are large regions of convective horizontal flows (larger than individual granules) wherein solar material and an embedded magnetic field flow radially outward from the center and downward at the outer boundaries causing the web-like appearance of the chromospheric network structure.
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SV_Identification

none found
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CI_Citation

Count Component Title Date Citation Identifier
1 Calcium (Ca) II K photographs: McMath
    1 Calcium (Ca) II K photographs: Meudon
      1 Calcium (Ca) II K photographs: Mt Wilson
        1 Collection included as a part of the NGDC Official Archive.
        • 2011-01-01
        1 NASA/GCMD Data Center Keywords; Olsen, L.M., G. Major, K. Shein, J. Scialdone, R. Vogel, S. Leicester, H. Weir, S. Ritz, T. Stevens, M. Meaux, C.Solomon, R. Bilodeau, M. Holland, T. Northcutt, R. A. Restrepo, 2007 . NASA/Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Earth Science Keywords. Version 6.0.0.0.0.
        • 2007
        1 NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords; Olsen, L.M., G. Major, K. Shein, J. Scialdone, R. Vogel, S. Leicester, H. Weir, S. Ritz, T. Stevens, M. Meaux, C.Solomon, R. Bilodeau, M. Holland, T. Northcutt, R. A. Restrepo, 2007 . NASA/Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Earth Science Keywords. Version 6.0.0.0.0.
        • 2007
        1 NASA/GCMD Instrument Keywords; Olsen, L.M., G. Major, K. Shein, J. Scialdone, R. Vogel, S. Leicester, H. Weir, S. Ritz, T. Stevens, M. Meaux, C.Solomon, R. Bilodeau, M. Holland, T. Northcutt, R. A. Restrepo, 2007 . NASA/Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Earth Science Keywords. Version 6.0.0.0.0.
        • 2007
        1 NASA/GCMD Location Keywords; Olsen, L.M., G. Major, K. Shein, J. Scialdone, R. Vogel, S. Leicester, H. Weir, S. Ritz, T. Stevens, M. Meaux, C.Solomon, R. Bilodeau, M. Holland, T. Northcutt, R. A. Restrepo, 2007 . NASA/Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Earth Science Keywords. Version 6.0.0.0.0.
        • 2007
        1 NASA/GCMD Platform Keywords; Olsen, L.M., G. Major, K. Shein, J. Scialdone, R. Vogel, S. Leicester, H. Weir, S. Ritz, T. Stevens, M. Meaux, C.Solomon, R. Bilodeau, M. Holland, T. Northcutt, R. A. Restrepo, 2007 . NASA/Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Earth Science Keywords. Version 6.0.0.0.0.
        • 2007
        1 NASA/GCMD Project Keywords; Olsen, L.M., G. Major, K. Shein, J. Scialdone, R. Vogel, S. Leicester, H. Weir, S. Ritz, T. Stevens, M. Meaux, C.Solomon, R. Bilodeau, M. Holland, T. Northcutt, R. A. Restrepo, 2007 . NASA/Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Earth Science Keywords. Version 6.0.0.0.0
        • 2007
        1 Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium
        • 2014-08-10
        solarImagery_Chromosphere_Corona
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        CI_Series

        none found
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        CI_ResponsibleParty

        Count Component Individual Organization Position Email Role Linkage
        1 DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce resourceProvider
        1 Daily solar photographs in Calcium-II K (393.4 nm) provided by various solar observatorys. See item 3 under "How was the data set created?" originator
        1 Dr. Harold McAlister, Director Mount Wilson Observatory hal@chara.gsu.edu resourceProvider http://www.mtwilson.edu/
        1 McMath-Hulbert Solar Observatory unknown resourceProvider http://www.mcmathhulbert.org/
        1 Observatoire de Paris ? Site de Meudon unknown resourceProvider http://www.obspm.fr/presentation.en.shtml
        2 William Denig DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce solar.ngdc@noaa.gov pointOfContact
        1 William Denig DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce solar.ngdc@noaa.gov distributor http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/spaceweather.html
        1 William Denig DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce solar.ngdc@noaa.gov custodian
        1 William Denig NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC E/GC2 325 Broadway solar.ngdc@noaa.gov processor
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        CI_OnlineResource

        Count Component Linkage Name Description Function
        1 http://www.mcmathhulbert.org/ McMath Solar Observatory The McMath-Hulbert Solar Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father and son Francis Charles McMath and Robert Raynolds McMath and their friend, Judge Henry Hulbert. In 1932 the observatory was deeded to the University of Michigan which operated it until 1981, at which time it was sold into private ownership again. In 1932 a 10.5-inch (270 mm) reflector telescope was added to the observatory as well as a spectroheliokinematograph {spectro-helio-kine-mato-graph}. This instrument was designed to take motion pictures of the Sun. The McMath-Hulbert Solar Observatory is primarily known for the motion pictures that the McMaths made of various celestial phenomena, including the first movies of solar prominences in motion. Later work involved solar spectroscopy in the near infrared and participation in a solar flare patrol program in the 1950s. Robert McMath and one of the resident astronomers, Keith Pierce, established the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak Observatory near Tucson, Arizona in 1962. (Wikipedia)
        1 http://www.mtwilson.edu/ Mount Wilson Observatory The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The MWO is located on Mount Wilson, a 5,715-foot (1,742 m) peak in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, northeast of Los Angeles. The observatory contains two historically important telescopes: the 60 inches (1.5 m) Hale telescope built in 1908, and the 100 inches (2.5 m) Hooker telescope, which was the largest telescope in the world from its completion in 1917 until 1948. Due to the inversion layer that traps smog over Los Angeles, Mount Wilson has naturally steadier air than any other location in North America, making it ideal for astronomy and in particular for interferometry.[1] The increasing light pollution due to the growth of greater Los Angeles has limited the ability of the observatory to engage in deep space astronomy, but it remains a productive center, with many new and old instruments in use for astronomical research. The observatory was conceived and founded by George Ellery Hale, who had built the 40 inches (1.0 m) telescope at the Yerkes Observatory. The Mount Wilson Solar Observatory was first funded by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1904, leasing the land from the owners of the Mount Wilson Hotel in 1904. Among the conditions of the lease was that it allow public access. (Wikipedia)
        1 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/spaceweather.html Space Weather Numerous datasets pertaining to space and solar environments (space weather).
        1 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/stp.html Solar and Terrestrial Physics Division, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC/STP) Numerous space environmental datasets are available at the NGDC/STP website
        1 http://www.obspm.fr/presentation.en.shtml Observatoire de Paris - Site de Meudon Established in 1667, the Observatoire de Paris is the largest national centre for research in astronomy. It counts among its staff thirty per cent of all French astronomers, who carry out research in the institution's seven laboratories. Located in the Paris, Meudon and Nan?ay sites, these are joint research units with the CNRS and often with major scientific universities in the Paris region.
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        MD_Identifier or RS_Identifier

        Count Component Code
        2
        1 solarImagery_Chromosphere_Corona
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        EX_Extent

        Bounding Box Temporal Extent
        Count Component Description West East North South Start End
        1 Data provided by various solar observatories located worldwide. Data record range is from 1915 to 2011. -180 180 90 -90 1915-08-09 2012-12-31
        1 2009-10-01 2010-09-30
        1 1948-01-01 1979-12-31
        1 2007-01-01 2011-12-31
        1 1915-01-01 1984-12-31
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        EX_GeographicBoundingBox

        Count Component West East North South
        1 -180 180 90 -90
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        EX_TemporalExtent

        Count Component Start End
        1 1915-08-09 2012-12-31
        1 2009-10-01 2010-09-30
        1 1948-01-01 1979-12-31
        1 2007-01-01 2011-12-31
        1 1915-01-01 1984-12-31
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        MD_Format

        Count Component Name Version specification
        2 JPG Some data provided in Joint Photographic Experts Group (jpg). format.
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        MD_Medium

        Count Component Name mediumFormat mediumNote
        1
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        MD_Constraints

        Count Component Use Limitation
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        MD_ReferenceSystem

        none found
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        MD_GridSpatialRepresentation

        none found
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        MD_Georeferenceable or MI_Georeferenceable

        none found
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        MD_Georectified or MI_Georectified

        none found
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        MD_Dimension

        none found
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        MD_CoverageDescription or MI_CoverageDescription

        Count Component Attribute Description Content Type
        1
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        MD_Band or MI_Band

        Count Component Identifier Descriptor
        1 Daily solar photographs in Calcium-II K (393.4 nm).
        1 Dataset includes a variety of solar photographic images provided by various solar observatories.
        1
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        MI_RangeElementDescription

        none found
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        MD_AggregateInformation

        none found
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        LE_Source or LI_Source

        Count Component Title Date Description
        1 Calcium (Ca) II K photographs: McMath
        1 Calcium (Ca) II K photographs: Meudon
        1 Calcium (Ca) II K photographs: Mt Wilson
        1 Collection included as a part of the NGDC Official Archive. 2011-01-01 The NOAA Solar and Terrestrial Physics Division is responsible for managing this collection.
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        LE_ProcessStep or LI_ProcessStep

        Count Component DateTime Description
        1 Film records professionally digitized through the NOAA Climate Data Modernization Program (CDMP).
        1 2011-12-31T00:00:00 Some original film records were digitized through the NOAA Climate Data Modernization Program (CDMP).
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        MI_Operation

        none found
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        MI_Platform

        Count Component Code Description
        1 Solar observatories
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        MI_Instrument

        Count Component Code Type Description
        2
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