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Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems
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    language:  eng; USA
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        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
        positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
    dateStamp:  2015-10-14
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1994
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
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                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
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                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (comp)
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                organisationName:  National Geophysical Data Center
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                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
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            presentationForm:
        abstract:  Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Damage to transportation systems is categorized in this set of images by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis. This set of slides depicts earthquake damage to streets, highways, bridges, overpasses, and railroads. Earthquakes in Guatemala, Japan, Mexico, Armenia, and the United States are represented.A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption oftransportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis. Ground Failure - A principal cause of earthquake damage to transportation systems is seismically generated ground failures in the form of landslides, lateral spreads, differential settlements, and ground cracks. During strong ground shaking, areas of clay-free sands and silts (where groundwater is near the surface) can temporarily lose strength and behave as viscous fluids. Consequently, highways and railways may settle or tilt in the liquefied soil, or are ripped apart as the ground flows or spreads laterally. Ground failure can cause movement of large blocks of soil on top of a liquefied subsurface. The lateral spreads, which break up into many fissures and scarps, usually develop on gentle slopes. In the 1964 Alaska earthquake, lateral spread failures damaged streets and highways, and restricted the use of railway grades and bridges. Ground failure also can dislodge rock and debris on steep slopes, triggering rockfalls, avalanches, and earth slides. The dislodged material is deposited on highways and railways, blocking traffic for hours or days.Faulting - Earthquake surface faults sometimes cross highways and railroads. Where this occurs, the roadbed may shift in the horizontal or vertical plane, or Roadway buckling sometimes results from ground shortening where thrust faulting occurs, and distortion can result from drag rebound or from concealed, closely spaced fractures.
        purpose:  Make available Damage Photos for research and education
        credit:  Patricia Lockridge
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
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                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
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        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/small_res/4/4_88.jpg
            fileDescription:  The Prince William Sound earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded on the North American Continent. It was a magnitude 8.4 earthquake, felt over 500,000 square miles. The quake took 137 lives and caused $350-500 million in property damage.This photo shows a beached fishing boat in the Seward area. The tsunami waves severely damaged many boats and washed them into the lagoon north of Seward and onto the tidal flats at the head of Resurrection Bay. Dock and harbor facilities were destroyed. A section of the waterfront about 1,060 m long, including the docks and the small boat harbor, slid into Resurrection Bay.
            fileType:  JPEG
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Seismology > Earthquake Occurrences
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > Tectonics > Faults
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                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
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            keyword:  Disasters > Catastrophic phenomena > Earthquakes
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Faults > Faults
            keyword:  Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
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                    date:  1995-04-24
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            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None Use Constraints: None Distribution Liability: While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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                    description:  Publication Date
                    beginPosition:  1946-04-01
                    endPosition:  1989-10-31
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                fees:  Free
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: 35 mm slides: Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems Ordering Instructions: Product may be ordered via: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=G01197-SLI-A0001 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
                turnaround:  4 Days
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                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Product may be downloaded via: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_1=4&t=101634&s=0&d=4&d=44 Custom Order Process: Contact Data Center
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                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency: (unknown)
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard version FGDC-STD-012-2002 using the June 2011 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform. The Spatial Reference Information is not currently mapped over to ISO but will be mapped in future versions.
        maintenanceNote:  This record was automatically modified on 2015-10-14 to include references to NCEI where applicable.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Anna Milan
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
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            positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
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                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
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