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Measurement of Incoherent Scatter
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere:G00145
    language:  eng; USA
    characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  Rob Redmon
    dateStamp:  2015-09-18
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Measurement of Incoherent Scatter
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1975-01-01
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
            citedResponsibleParty:  NCEI (publisher)
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                positionName: (withheld)
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/iono
                        protocol:  http
                        name:  Ionosphere Program at NCEI
                        description:  The Ionospheric Physics Group of NCEI operates the Ionosphere portion of the World Data Center for Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Boulder, which seeks out and archives data, data products, and information related to the Ionosphere.
                        function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                role: (inapplicable)
        abstract:  For radio waves transmitted through the ionosphere with frequencies much larger (50 to 1300MHz) than the plasma frequency (up to 15MHz), very small-scale fluctuations of electron density will scatter a portion of the signal back toward the transmitter. These fluctuations are caused by the random thermal motions of the electrons. The height at which the scattering occurs can be determined by either a pulse technique or by the use of two intersecting cylindrical radar beams. The height resolutions of a backscattered pulse or beam can vary from 4 to 35 km at a height of 100 km to about 300 km at altitudes above 1000 km, depending on the equipment used and the geographical location of the station. From analysis of the backscattered signals, electron density profiles, electron and ion temperature profiles, and ion composition and ionospheric drift can be determined. The equipment used for the observations determines the vertical extent of the backscattered profiles and the resolution, as well as influencing the procedures used to convert the scattered return to measures of meaningful ionospheric parameters. Radar installations that can make these observations are complex and expensive to operate; consequently, these observations are scheduled on an "as needed" basis, and the equipment is shared for other uses. Although the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) has several data tapes, each one is an independent experiment with its own parameters and data format. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) now archives these data. Their collection includes the NCEI data and newer Incoherent Scatter data that they receive. NCAR has done significant development work on these data sets. They have created a common archive data format and converted all data to this new format. For additional details about this data set, contact one of the people at the address listed below. NCAR HAO, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA. FAX: 303-497-1589. Barbara Emery: 303-497-1596, emery@ncar.ucar.edu. Roy Barnes: 303-497-1230; bozo@ncar.ucar.edu.
        purpose:  Radio Signal Research
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  Rob Redmon
        resourceMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
            maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) notPlanned
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Solar-terrestrial Interactions > Ionosphere/Magnetosphere Particles > Particle Density
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  WDS Project Keyword
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Global
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NASA/GCMD Location Keywords
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  Data Center Keywords
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_Constraints)
            useLimitation:  While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Use Constraints: None
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            accessConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: No Constraints
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -180.000000
                eastBoundLongitude:  180.000000
                southBoundLatitude:  -90.000000
                northBoundLatitude:  90.000000
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                    beginPosition:  1965-11-15
                    endPosition:  1977-12-15
        supplementalInformation:  Observing station type: Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. Data collection type: Network.Quality control: The incoherent scatter data consist of the following data sets: Arecibo I9/I29, N12, N34(Raw), N35(Raw), and N35(reduced); Jicamarca: November 1966-April 1969; Millstone Hill: 1970 and 1971; Saint Santin: November 1965-November 1967, February 1971-May 1975, and January 1976-December 1977.
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  ASCII
            version: (unknown)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  Rob Redmon
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  No cost
                orderingInstructions:  Ordering Instructions: Download data via the ftp site Custom Order Process: Contact data center for information
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
              Real:  161.200000
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/ionosonde
                protocol:  ftp
                name:  Index of STP/Ionosphere
                description:  ftp characteristics of Ionospheric data
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/IONOSPHERE/
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
            offLine:  (MD_Medium)
                name:  (MD_MediumNameCode) CARTRIDGE TAPE
                mediumFormat:  (MD_MediumFormatCode) tar
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    dataQualityInfo:  NCEI repository history
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) annually
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard (version FGDC-STD-012-2002) using the 2012-08-08 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform.
        maintenanceNote:  Translated from FGDC 2012-10-10T11:10:05.391-06:00
        maintenanceNote:  This record was automatically modified on 2015-09-18 to include references to NCEI where applicable.
        contact:  Anna Milan
        contact:  Rob Redmon