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Measurements of the Absorptive Properties of the Ionosphere
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere:G00569
    language:  eng; USA
    characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  Rob Redmon
    dateStamp:  2015-09-18
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Measurements of the Absorptive Properties of the Ionosphere
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1964-01-01
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            edition:  First
            citedResponsibleParty:  NCEI (publisher)
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
        abstract:  Absorption of radio waves occurs when electrons responding to the wave fields collide with and transfer energy to the neutral particles. A study of ionospheric absorption yields information on both the D and E regions, where both electrons and neutral particles exist in sufficient quantity to produce significant absorption. Knowledge of D region characteristics is unattainable from normal sweep-frequency ionograms because absorption prevents the return of a detectable reflected signal. In practice, absorption characteristics are studied primarily in connection with radio communications applications. A riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) is a detector that measures the absorptive properties of the ionosphere. This directional detector is oriented in a fixed direction relative to the Earth (usually vertical) and measures the incident cosmic radio noise at a single frequency between 8 MHz and 120 MHz (usually 20, 30, or 60 MHz). During the course of each sidereal day, the riometer receives noise from all celestial longitudes. Due to the general constancy of cosmic radio noise, the signal will be constant except for a large-scale, small-amplitude, daily solar effect which regresses through the observations at the rate of 1 day per year (4 minutes earlier each day). Deviations of observed riometer signal power are primarily attributable to ionospheric variations particularly in the D and E regions. This method is particularly useful during radio blackout (high absorption) since it involves the use of higher frequency signals that are not completely absorbed. The Alaskan Chain Riometer data was discontinued, in analog form, December 31, 1990. The Data Center still receives riometer data from Kiruna. The publication includes magnetograms, k-indices, all-sky camera data, and riometer data. It is published quarterly. We also receive some riometer data from Syowa Station. The data are collections of several years of data and the publication (JARE DATA REPORTS) are sent by the National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo Japan. These publications only have numeric values. All riometer data are in paper form and are stored off site. Most of the data are ''strip charts'' which record the variations on paper rolls. This data base is mostly a collection of the different charts and publications. No additional quality control is done by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) here in Boulder. Data requested are electrostatic copies of the appropriate portion of a chart of publication.
        purpose:  Radio Wave Absorption Research
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) underDevelopment
        pointOfContact:  Rob Redmon
        resourceMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
            maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) monthly
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Solar-terrestrial Interactions > Ionosphere/Magnetosphere Particles > Particle Density
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > Solar-terrestrial Interactions > Ionosphere/Magnetosphere Particles > Particle Composition
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NASA/GCMD Earth Science Keywords
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Absorption
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Uncontrolled Keywords
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Ionosphere
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NASA/GCMD Location Keywords
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  Data Center Keywords
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_Constraints)
            useLimitation:  While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Use Constraints: None
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            accessConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: No Constraints
        spatialRepresentationType:  (MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode) grid
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -180.000000
                eastBoundLongitude:  180.000000
                southBoundLatitude:  -90.000000
                northBoundLatitude:  90.000000
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                    beginPosition:  1963-01-01
                    endPosition:  1990-12-31
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  Rob Redmon
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  Depends on the Data Set
                orderingInstructions:  Non-Digital Form: Paper Pages Ordering Instructions: Price information is available upon request. Prepay by check, money order or bank card. There is a standard handling charge, with additional costs for special handling. Orders may be placed via fax, email, regular mail or telephone. Custom Order Process: Contact data center for information
                turnaround:  4 Days
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    dataQualityInfo:  NCEI repository history
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) annually
        maintenanceNote:  This metadata was automatically generated from the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata: Extensions for Remote Sensing Metadata standard (version FGDC-STD-012-2002) using the 2012-08-08 version of the FGDC RSE to ISO 19115-2 transform.
        maintenanceNote:  Translated from FGDC 2012-10-10T11:10:06.423-06:00
        maintenanceNote:  This record was automatically modified on 2015-09-18 to include references to NCEI where applicable.
        contact:  Anna Milan
        contact:  Rob Redmon