Ocean variability represented by the analysed data and preferences of planktic foraminifera for parameters describing the physical environment in the North Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. See Fig. 41 for definitions of range, suboptimum, and optimum. N samples: number of samples; occurrences: number of occurrences of a species in the sample set; Ocean Variability: minima, maxima, and range of physical parameters in the data set; depth (m): ocean depth at sample site; W: winter; S: summer; 0 m: at sea surface; 200 m: 200 m depth below surface; SST: sea surface temperature; T: temperature; season.: seasonality (summer value minus winter value); Sal: salinity (ä PSS); density: water density (kg/m3); T grad. (0-200 m): vertical temperature gradient (SST minus (T 200 m)); Sal grad. (0-200 m): vertical salinity gradient (Sal (0 m) minus Sal (200 m)); Stratification: vertical water density contrast (density (0 m) minus density (200 m); range (min), range (max): minimum or maximum value along biogeographic range of species; range width: variance of parameter; 50% (min), 50% (max): minimum or maximum value of parameter in interval >50% of maximum relative abundance of species; 50% (width): variance of parameter; optimum (min), optimum (max): minimum or maximum value of parameter in interval >75% of maximum relative abundance of species; optimum (width): variance of parameter. Optima of species are often not well covered by data and should be used with caution (compare figures in this paper).

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Figure 41: Range, suboptimum, and optimum as defined in this paper to extract information on preferences of species presented in the appendix.

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