Volumes of the World's Oceans from ETOPO1
Table 1. Volumes of the World's Oceans from ETOPO1
|South China Sea||6,963,000||1.9||9,880,000||0.7||1419||7352|
|+ Boundaries between oceans vary depending upon agency, making comparisons with other published estimates difficult.|
|¤ Total surface area of Earth is 510,082,000 sq. km. The oceans cover ~70.9%.|
|* Southern Ocean area and volume calculated from ETOPO1 Bedrock version (includes Weddell and Ross seas without ice cover).|
|# Deepest ocean depth is in the Marianas Trench, measured at 10,911 meters. Maximum depths from ETOPO1 are not expected to exactly match known measured maximum depths as ETOPO1 represents average depths over ~4 sq. km areas.|
Ocean boundaries were modified from 'The Limits of Oceans and Seas' [IHO Special Publication 23, 1953] to include only major oceans and marginal seas and to include the Southern Ocean south of 60°S.
Volumes were calculated for each ocean grid cell in ETOPO1 using Equation 1 to determine cell area, and Equation 2 to determine cell volume. Cell areas and volumes were then summed over each ocean or marginal sea.
|dA = a2 cos(ø) (1-e2) dø dl / (1-e2 sin2ø)2||Equation 1|
|dV = dA * depth||Equation 2|
|Latitude (ø)||= latitude of cell's center (in radians)|
|Unit of Latitude (dø)||= 1 arc-minute (2.908882 x10-4 radians)|
|Unit of Longitude (dl)||= 1 arc-minute (2.908882 x10-4 radians)|
The WGS84 spheroid was used for values of Earth's radius and eccentricity:
|Equatorial radius (a)||= 6378.137 km|
|Eccentricity (e)||= 0.08181919|
Eakins, B.W. and G.F. Sharman, Volumes of the World's Oceans from ETOPO1, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO, 2010.
Amante, C. and B. W. Eakins, ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24, 19 pp, March 2009. [http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/relief/ETOPO1/docs/ETOPO1.pdf]
CIA, The World Factbook, Dec 2009. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/]
International Hydrographic Organization, The Limits of Oceans and Seas, Special Publication 23, 3rd Edition, Monte Carlo, 1953. [http://www.iho-ohi.net/]